Selpercatinib for metastatic RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer
Selpercatinib is in clinical development for the treatment of metastatic RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer and at the metastatic stage the disease has already spread from the lungs to other sites. Around 2% of these patients will have tumours that contain fusion mutations in the RET gene. Cells in these tumour produce altered RET signalling receptors that allow uncontrolled cancer growth. Currently the only treatment options that attempt to inhibit RET fusion-positive tumour activity are nonselective multikinase inhibitors.
Durvalumab for recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck – first line
Durvalumab is a medicinal product currently in development for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). SCCHN is a cancer that arises from cells called squamous cells. Squamous cells are found in the outer layer of skin and in the mucous membranes, the moist tissues that line body cavities such as the airways and intestines. SCCHN develops in the mouth, nose and throat. Recurrent or metastatic SCCHN typically exhibits poor patient outcomes, for which more effective therapies are required.
Pembrolizumab in addition to trastuzumab and chemotherapy for HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma – First-line
Pembrolizumab in addition to trastuzumab and chemotherapy is being developed for patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Gastric (stomach) cancer is cancer that starts anywhere inside the stomach or the stomach wall. Advanced gastric cancer means that a cancer that began in the stomach has spread to at least one other part of the body, such as the liver or lungs. HER2-positive means the cancer cells have too much HER2 protein on the surface of their cells, which can help cancer cells to grow. Advanced or metastatic cancer cannot usually be cured and current treatment aim to control the disease, relieve symptoms, and give patients a better quality of life. Trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy is a current treatment option.
Selpercatinib for advanced thyroid cancer with RET alterations
Selpercatinib is a first-in-class oral precision cancer medicine designed to selectively bind to cancers that harbour genetic abnormalities in the RET proteins. This binding inhibits the RET receptor signalling which in turn inhibits the tumour cell growth and may also prevent resistance to the treatment from developing. Selpercatinib is being developed for various RET-altered advanced thyroid cancers with early results indicating significantly improved outcomes. If licensed, selpercatinib will offer a treatment option for patients with advanced RET-mutant MTC and advanced RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer who have progressed following prior treatment and have no acceptable alternative treatment options.
Tisotumab vedotin for recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer
Tisotumab vedotin is currently in clinical development for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer who have received at least one prior systemic therapy. Cervical cancer develops in a woman’s cervix (lower part of the womb). It mainly affects sexually active women aged between 30 and 45 years. Cervical cancer often has no symptoms in its early stages. Cervical cancer that has spread to another part of the body is called advanced or metastatic cancer. Cancer that returns after months or years of the completion of the initial treatment is called recurrent cancer. The most common symptom of cervical cancer includes bleeding from the vagina at times other than the usual periods. Despite the recent developments, the prognosis remains poor and systemic therapy options are needed for women with recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer.
Pegcetacoplan (APL-2) for paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
Pegcetacoplan targets and inhibits the activation of an important protein in the complement system called C3 that plays a key role in PNH. By inhibiting C3 activation, the medicine is expected to block the chain of reactions that damage the red blood cells, thus relieving the symptoms of the disease. Pegcetacoplan is given by subcutaneous injection for self-administration. If licensed, Pegcetacoplan could represent an additional treatment option for patients with PNH.
Pemigatinib for locally advanced or metastatic, relapsed or refractory cholangiocarcinoma with FGFR2 fusion or rearrangement
Pemigatinib is administered orally and it works by blocking receptors (targets) called fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). FGFRs are found in many cancer cells and play a key role in the growth and spread of the cancer cells. By blocking the FGFR, pemigatinib is expected to reduce the growth and spread of the cancer. If licensed, pemigatinib may offer an additional treatment option for patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma with FGFR2 fusion or rearrangement who have failed previous therapy.
Cabotegravir (oral tablet) in combination with rilpivirine (oral tablet) for the short-term treatment of HIV-1 infection
Cabotegravir and rilpivirine tablets are in development as an oral lead-in therapy for a period of approximately one month as a short-term oral bridging treatment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) patients that are considered eligible for the long-acting injectable cabotegravir and rilpivirine therapy. HIV is a type of viral infection caused by a type of virus referred to as a retrovirus. HIV-1 is the most common and highly communicable type of HIV. HIV is a lifelong, chronic disease that nowadays can be managed with antiretroviral therapies (ARTs). Since HIV virus can quickly adapt and become resistant, a combination of ART drugs is normally used. Usually patients take between one and 4 or 6 tablets a day. Failing to do so will result in a weakened immune system and increased vulnerability to infections.