NIHR Innovation Observatory Soft Intelligence Squad
About The NIHR Innovation Observatory’s Soft Intelligence Squad (NIHRIO SIS) are monitoring, tracking, and analysing ‘soft intelligence’ to explore health impacts. Mobilised in March 2020, the group are using novel text mining and machine learning techniques, involving sentiment detection, analysis, and classification, to help extract and synthesise meaningful insights from the ‘public voice’. Led and …
Luspatercept for the treatment of adults with non-transfusion dependent beta (β)-thalassaemia
Luspatercept is under clinical development for the treatment of adult patients with beta-thalassaemia who don’t regularly require blood transfusion. Thalassaemia is a commonly inherited blood disorder resulting from an abnormality in one of the genes that affects the production of haemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body . Beta-thalassaemia is a subtype caused by a specific gene mutation. People with thalassaemia produce either little or no normal haemoglobin. Current treatment options for beta-thalassaemia are limited to blood transfusions with its associated risks and complications.
Dapagliflozin for chronic kidney disease
Dapagliflozin blocks the action of a protein in the kidneys called sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2). As blood is filtered by the kidneys, SGLT2 stops glucose in the bloodstream from being passed out into the urine. By blocking the action of SGLT2, dapagliflozin causes the kidney to pass out more glucose in the urine, thereby reducing the levels of glucose in the blood. SGLT2 inhibitors have exhibited beneficial effects on kidney function in those with diabetes and more recently has shown improvements in kidney function and all-cause mortality in those with CKD without a diabetes. If licensed, dapagliflozin may provide a treatment option specifically for people with CKD.
Osimertinib for EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer – adjuvant
Osimertinib is in clinical development as an adjuvant treatment for resectable, early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer is one of the most common and serious types of cancer and NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer. An adjuvant treatment is an additional cancer treatment given after the primary treatment, to lower the risk of the cancer returning. Resectable cancer means that the cancer can be removed by surgery, which means the cancer is normally in earlier stages. A proportion of patients have mutations to the protein epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which controls cell growth. There are currently no recommended EGFR-targeted therapies for early stage NSCLC.
Durvalumab in combination with tremelimumab and chemotherapy for unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer
Durvalumab and tremelimumab are immunotherapies, meaning they target the immune system. Durvalumab binds to a protein called PD-L1 to prevent it from binding its target (PD-1). In doing so, durvalumab allows immune cells, called T cells, to be activated so that they can destroy the cancer cells. Tremelimumab binds a protein called CTLA4 on T-cells, activating them and allowing them to kill cancer cells. Durvalumab and tremelimumab are administered intravenously. If licensed, durvalumab in combination with tremelimumab and chemotherapy will offer an additional treatment option for patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic UC.
CC-486 for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
CC-486 is in development for relapsed or refractory angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). AITL is a fast-growing type of T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma marked by enlarged lymph nodes and increased antibodies in the blood. Other symptoms may include a skin rash, fever, weight loss, or night sweats. AITL is more resistant to conventional chemotherapy than other forms of lymphoma and is generally associated with a poor outcome. In relapsed or refractory disease, survival durations are in the range of only a few months meaning there is unmet medical need in this patient population.
Lisocabtagene maraleucel for relapsed or refractory, aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin Lymphoma – second line
Lisocabtagene maraleucel is an advanced immunotherapy administered intravenously that contains the patient’s own white blood cells (T-cells) that have been modified genetically in the laboratory so that they make a protein called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The CAR T-cells attach to a particular protein called CD19 on the surface of cancer cells resulting in the death of these cells. If licensed, will offer an additional treatment option for patients with relapsed/refractory, aggressive B-cell NHL who are not eligible for stem cell transplant.