Nivolumab in addition to temozolomide and radiotherapy for MGMT-methylated glioblastoma in newly diagnosed adults – first line
Nivolumab is a type of immunotherapy that is currently licensed in the UK for the treatment of several types of advanced cancers such as melanoma, non‐small cell lung cancer, and kidney cancer. It blocks a protein called programmed death-1 (PD-1), which is found on the surface of a type of immune cells called T-cells. Blocking PD-1 stimulates the T-cells to kill the cancer cells. Temozolomide in combination with radiotherapy is currently licensed in the UK for newly diagnosed glioblastoma in adults. The addition of nivolumab to temozolomide and radiotherapy will potentially offer an additional first line treatment option for adult patients who are newly diagnosed MGMT-methylated glioblastoma.
Tabelecleucel for Epstein-Barr Virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease following solid organ transplant
Tabelecleucel is in clinical development for people with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) following solid organ transplant, where treatment with rituximab or rituximab and chemotherapy has not been successful. The EBV virus is present in around 90% of people, but people who have had an organ transplant need to take medicine that suppresses their immune system. This means that virus-infected lymphoid cells can grow more easily. The rapid increase in these lymphoid cells can result in lymphoma, a type of cancer. EBV-PTLD can be treated by reducing the immunosuppressive medicines, but may also need treatment with rituximab with or without chemotherapy.
Nintedanib for progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease
Nintedanib is already licensed for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis which is a subtype of ILDs. Nintedanib acts by blocking specific enzymes and pathways that lead to the development of blood vessels within lung cells involved in the scarring process. This inhibits further growth of the scarring tissues resulting in slowing of the disease progression. This action has been shown to be similar in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. If licensed, nintedanib may provide the first novel therapy for PF-ILD where limited treatment options currently exist.
Encorafenib in combination with binimetinib and cetuximab for BRAF V600E mutant metastatic colorectal cancer
Encorafenib in combination with binimetinib and cetuximab is one of the first regimens to target the BRAF V600E-mutation in colorectal cancer. When this mutation is present, it switches on another protein called MEK, which stimulates cell division and leads to uncontrolled cell growth. Encorafenib and binimetinib target different parts of an important signalling pathway in tumour cells with the mutation, and slows down their growth and communication. It is also one of the first combinations to simultaneously target the BRAF and MEK pathways, and encorafenib and binimetinib have the advantage of oral administration.
Enzalutamide in addition to androgen deprivation therapy for treating metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer
Enzalutamide is an oral capsule that works by blocking the androgen receptor to modify the effects of androgens on the prostate, stopping the growth of the cancer cells. Enzalutamide in addition to ADT may offer an alternative option for people that cannot receive or do not respond to chemotherapy plus ADT. If licensed, enzalutamide in addition to ADT will increase the treatment options available for patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.
Idasanutlin in addition to cytarabine for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia
The most common treatment option for AML is chemotherapy to kill the cancerous cells. Idasanutlin in addition to cytarabine is a new treatment option that has shown promising clinical activity in acute leukaemia. Idasanutlin acts by blocking the activity of a protein known as MDM2 that is frequently found in AML. Blocking the activity of MDM2 can result in promoting cancer cells death. Idasanutlin is taken orally. If licenced, idasanutlin in addition to cytarabine would offer a new treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory AML.
Selumetinib for neurofibromatosis type 1
Selumetinib is in clinical development for children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also called von Recklinghausen’s disease. NF1 is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the development of multiple benign tumours of nerves and skin and areas of abnormal skin colour. NF1 is caused by mutation in a gene that regulates the production of a …
Brexanolone for postpartum depression
Brexanolone is an active product of the female reproductive hormone progesterone that regulates a specific neurotransmitter involved in a range of behaviours, including the stress
response. Some small studies have shown that brexanolone rapidly and significantly improves the symptoms of PPD and other hormonal mood disorders when compared to
other treatments. If licensed brexanolone would be the first PPD treatment that specifically targets the underlying disease process in PPD.
Mechlorethamine gel for mycosis fungoides in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Mechlorethamine gel has been developed for the treatment of mycosis fungoides (MF) which is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). MF is a slow growing type of CTCL that initially manifests as red patches in body areas not exposed to sunlight. The main symptom is itching. There is currently no cure for MF and management is focussed at alleviating symptoms and avoiding spread to other parts of the body. People with MF type of cancer can live for many years with this condition. Relapse or progression can happen during ongoing treatment or after its cessation.
Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma
Pembrolizumab is a medicinal product that is being investigated as treatment for patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Hodgkin lymphoma is a type
of cancer of the lymphatic system and it is the most common type. The condition is called relapsed or refractory when it recurs after a period of improvement or when it does not
respond to treatment. The most common symptom of Hodgkin lymphoma is a swelling in the neck, armpit or groin.