Atezolizumab is in clinical development for stage IV non-squamous or squamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC makes up the majority of lung cancers in the UK.
Stage IV (advanced/metastatic) NSCLC is when the cancer has spread beyond the lung which was initially affected, most often to the liver, the adrenal glands, the bones, and the
brain. Most patients with NSCLC are diagnosed at the advanced/metastatic stage where curative treatment with surgery is unsuitable. Currently, chemotherapy remains the main
first line option at this stage and often not well tolerated by many patients.
Atezolizumab is a monoclonal antibody against the protein, programed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which is highly expressed on certain tumours. This overexpression can lead to
reduced activation of immune cells that might otherwise recognise and attack cancer cells. By attaching to PD-L1 and reducing its effect, atezolizumab increases the ability of the
immune system to attack cancer cells and thereby slows the progression of the disease. If licensed, atezolizumab will offer an additional treatment option for patients with
untreated stage IV squamous or non-squamous NSCLC.
Nivolumab in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil is in clinical development for patients with unresectable, advanced, recurrent or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell cancer cell carcinoma. Advanced oesophageal cancer begins in the food pipe and spreads to other parts of the body. Squamous cell cancers develop from the cells that make up the inner lining of the oesophagus. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, persistent acid indigestion or heartburn, weight loss, pain in the throat, and chronic cough. Lifestyle factors are attributed to most oesophageal cancers, including smoking and being overweight.