Cervical cancer develops in a woman’s cervix (the lower part of the womb, also called the neck of the womb). It mainly affects sexually active women aged between 30 and 45 years. Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Cervical cancer often has no symptoms in its early stages. Cervical cancer that has spread to another part of the body is called advanced or metastatic cancer. The cancer that returns after months or years of the completion of the initial treatment is called recurrent cancer. The most common symptom of cervical cancer include bleeding from the vagina at times other than the usual periods. Symptoms of advanced cancer depend on where the cancer has spread to. Cervical cancer was the 14th most common cancer among females in the UK.
Axalimogene filolisbac is a type of cancer vaccine being developed as immunotherapy that attacks HPV-associated cancers such as cervical cancers. It works by alerting the body’s immune system to the presence of cancer, stimulating the body’s natural defenses to attack the cancer. Axalimogene filolisbac is given intravenously and is being developed for the treatment of persistent, recurrent, or metastatic, squamous or non-squamous cell cervical cancer in patients who progress beyond first-line therapy. If licensed, Axalimogene filolisbac will offer a new treatment option for this patient group.
Pembrolizumab, given by intravenous infusion, acts by binding to a protein called antiprogrammed death‐ligand 1 (PD‐L1) that is found on the cancer cells or immune cells trying
to attack cancer cells. Binding to this protein can lead to the activation of the body’s immune system to fight tumour cells. In cHL, pembrolizumab has promising results. If licensed it will
provide a treatment option for cHL patients who have failed ASCT or are not eligible for it.