Epilepsy is a common condition that affects the brain and causes frequent seizures; abnormal electrical activity in the brain that occurs suddenly and can temporarily affect how the brain functions. Epilepsy can start in any age, but usually either in childhood or in people over 60 years. In most cases, it is not clear why this happens. However, it may be caused by several factors including brain injury, infection or oxygen deprivation, scarring of brain tissue, brain tumours, and/or chemical/hormonal imbalances. In epilepsy there are two main types of seizures: generalised seizures which affect the whole brain and focal (or partial) seizures, which occur when the electrical disturbance in the brain is focussed in just one part of the brain. The symptoms associated with focal seizures depend on the part of the brain that is affected. The symptoms may vary from language and speech disturbances, having strange feelings, impaired consciousness, seeing patterns, and flashing lights or colours.
Cenobamate is a medicinal product that is being developed as a therapy for patients with partial focal epilepsy that would be taken in addition to other anti-epileptic medicine (adjunctive therapy). It is given as capsules. Cenobamate is considered a new generation antiepileptic therapy and clinical trials have shown that it may be more effective and safer than existing drugs. If licensed, cenobamate will offer a new adjunctive treatment option for patients with partial focal epilepsy.
Edaravone as an intravenous injection is in clinical development for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a neurological condition that affects nerve cells in the brain and
spinal cord. It results in gradual weakness and wasting of muscles of the body. Respiratory muscles are involved as the disease progresses, leading to shortness of breath and ultimately
death. Little is known about the cause of the disease, and there is currently no cure.