Durvalumab in combination with tremelimumab is in clinical development for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer that occurs mainly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Unresectable HCC occurs when the cancer has spread to lymph nodes or to other organs and cannot be treated by surgery. Unresectable HCC is often diagnosed late in life and has a poor prognosis. It is a debilitating condition with many distressing symptoms, including pain, digestive problems and weight loss. The current standard of care can only slow the progression of the cancer and extend survival.
Durvalumab and tremelimumab are drugs both given through intravenous infusion that act through different pathways to stimulate the body’s immune system to fight cancerous cells. The combined effect of the two products may produce a stronger more targeted immune response against the cancer cells when compared to current treatments. If licensed durvalumab in combination with tremelimumab could provide an additional efficacious and safe treatment option for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Atezolizumab is currently in clinical development for the treatment of patients muscle-invasive urothelial cancer (MIUC) including muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) patients who are at high risk following resection. MIBC is a cancer that spreads into the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. MIBC starts in the inner bladder layer and then grows in the deep muscle. While UTUC can arise along any part of the urinary tract lined with urothelium with the majority of cases in the lower tract and rest in the upper tract. Over time the tumour may grow outside the bladder into tissues close by and then may spread to lymph nodes, the lungs, the liver and other parts of the body. The current standard care of treatment includes a surgery which might not be adequate and some patients might be at high risk for recurrence.