The Human acellular vessel (HAV) is in clinical development to provide vascular access for haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ESRD is a long-term irreversible condition where the kidneys do not work as well as they should as a result of chronic kidney disease. There is no cure for kidney failure and patients with this condition requires haemodialysis or a renal transplant for survival. Haemodialysis works by taking blood from the body and cleaning it through a machine to remove the toxins. Blood is filtered before being returned to the body. Vascular access is a way to reach the blood during haemodialysis.
The HAV is a bio-engineered vascular tube for dialysis access in patients with ESRD. It utilises human vascular cells to form a mechanically strong, engineered tube similar to native blood vessels. The HAV is among the first generation regenerative medicine aiming to generate artificial biological structures used to repair or replace damaged tissues and organs. If licensed the HAV will provide a treatment option for patients to use a prosthesis for vascular access in haemodialysis patients with ESRD.
Vadadustat is in development for the treatment of anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anaemia is a condition where the body has fewer red blood cells (RBC) to carry oxygen throughout the body resulting in a decline in function of the body’s organs and tissues. Symptoms of anaemia in CKD patients include weakness, fatigue, headaches, dizziness and difficulty breathing. Anaemia is common in people with CKD because diseased kidneys produce less erythropoietin (EPO) which is needed to make RBCs. Current treatment for anaemia in CKD involves erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) however, they may result in adverse side-effects so there is a need for safer treatment options.