Lenalidomide in addition to a chemotherapy combination known as R-CHOP is in clinical development for newly diagnosed, previously untreated adult patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the subtype known as activated B-cells (ABC) type. DLBCL is a cancer affecting a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes or B-cells. It is the most common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma among adults. DLBCL is an aggressive cancer and although it can be cured in more than half of people affected, it remains a serious and life threatening disease. Treatment does not work as well for patients with the ABC type compared to patients with other DLBCL types who receive standard treatment.
Lenalidomide is a derivative of thalidomide and in DLBCL works by blocking the development of tumour cells, preventing the growth of blood vessels within tumours and stimulating some of the specialised cells of the immune system to attack the cancerous cells. It is administered orally in addition to current standard of therapy R-CHOP. The addition of lenalidomide to R-CHOP for this population subgroup may improve effectiveness and prognosis.
Pembrolizumab in addition to platinum therapy and radiation is in clinical development for the treatment of unresectable locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancers that are collectively known as head and neck cancers usually begin in the squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside the head and neck (for example, inside the mouth, the nose, and the throat). The main risk factors for squamous cell carcinomas are smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol. Symptoms may include sore throat, difficulty swallowing and pain in the ears and others. Treatment options for cancer that has spread usually involve chemotherapy such as (platinum-based therapy) and/or radiotherapy and focus on relieving symptoms and prolonging life rather than curing the cancer.