Nivolumab in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil is in clinical development for patients with unresectable, advanced, recurrent or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell cancer cell carcinoma. Advanced oesophageal cancer begins in the food pipe and spreads to other parts of the body. Squamous cell cancers develop from the cells that make up the inner lining of the oesophagus. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, persistent acid indigestion or heartburn, weight loss, pain in the throat, and chronic cough. Lifestyle factors are attributed to most oesophageal cancers, including smoking and being overweight.
Nivolumab administered by intravenous infusion, works by improving the activity of white blood cells (T-cells) thereby increasing the ability of the immune system to kill cancer cells. Cisplatin and fluorouracil are both standard chemotherapies that are used in treating many different types of advanced or metastatic cancers. If licensed, nivolumab in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil may offer an additional treatment option for patients with advanced, recurrent, unresectable or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Atezolizumab is currently in clinical development for the treatment of patients muscle-invasive urothelial cancer (MIUC) including muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) patients who are at high risk following resection. MIBC is a cancer that spreads into the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. MIBC starts in the inner bladder layer and then grows in the deep muscle. While UTUC can arise along any part of the urinary tract lined with urothelium with the majority of cases in the lower tract and rest in the upper tract. Over time the tumour may grow outside the bladder into tissues close by and then may spread to lymph nodes, the lungs, the liver and other parts of the body. The current standard care of treatment includes a surgery which might not be adequate and some patients might be at high risk for recurrence.