Semaglutide is in clinical development as an oral treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is a condition that causes blood sugar level to become too high. The majority of diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes, where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the body cells do not respond properly to insulin (‘insulin resistance’). Treatment of type 2 diabetes aim to control blood glucose levels and involves a combination of lifestyle strategies (healthy diet, weight control) and use of oral medications. Medication is usually used for those where lifestyle changes do not control blood glucose. Insulin injections are usually used for those in whom lifestyle changes and medications cannot control blood glucose levels.
Semaglutide works by increasing the amount of insulin released from the pancreas and by delaying how quickly food moves through your digestive system, which aid in controlling blood sugar levels. Semaglutide belongs to a class of antidiabetic medications called glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. Most other medications in this class are administered by injection under the skin. If licensed, semaglutide will be the first effective oral GLP-1 analogue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and may improve acceptance and adherence for some patients compared with the injectable formulation of GLP-1 receptor agonists.
Apabetalone is the first product developed to inhibit BET proteins. These BET proteins can control the activity of cells and make them produce proteins that cause inflammation. By inhibiting the BET proteins the production of inflammatory proteins is reduced. Apabetalone also increases production of high density lipoproteins which removes excess cholesterol, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Apabetalone has the potential to affect multiple processes which contribute to cardiovascular disease, with the overall result of reducing the risk of a major adverse cardiac event in diabetic patients. If licensed, apabetalone may offer an additional preventive treatment option for major adverse cardiac events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, high-risk a high risk of cardiovascular disease and low HDL.