Pertuzumab/trastuzumab (fixed-dose combination (FDC) in addition to chemotherapy is in clinical development as a subcutaneous formulation (SC) for the adjuvant treatment of adults with the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive early and metastatic breast cancer. HER2 positive breast cancer is a subtype in which the HER2 receptor is over expressed on the cell surface. HER2 promotes the growth of cancer cells and this breast cancer subtype tends to be more aggressive than other types. Metastatic breast cancer is when cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes to other organs in the body. Treatment of the disease often involves the use of anti-HER2 therapies, chemotherapy or a combination of both.
Pertuzumab, is a monoclonal antibody, a type of protein that attaches to HER2 and activates the immune system (the body’s natural defences) which result in growth arrest and death of cancer cells. Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that attaches to the HER2 protein and activates cells of the immune system which results in growth inhibition and death of cancer cells. Pertuzumab provides additional benefits when added to other medicines for HER-positive cancer, notably trastuzumab. Pertuzumab in combination with trastuzumab and chemotherapy is a treatment option for HER2-positive early and metastatic breast cancer as either in subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV) formulation. However, pertuzumab and trastuzumab in a FDC with chemotherapy given subcutaneously will offer a new formulation for patients with HER2-positive early and metastatic breast cancer.
Nivolumab in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil is in clinical development for patients with unresectable, advanced, recurrent or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell cancer cell carcinoma. Advanced oesophageal cancer begins in the food pipe and spreads to other parts of the body. Squamous cell cancers develop from the cells that make up the inner lining of the oesophagus. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, persistent acid indigestion or heartburn, weight loss, pain in the throat, and chronic cough. Lifestyle factors are attributed to most oesophageal cancers, including smoking and being overweight.