Pexidartinib is a medicinal product that is being developed for the treatment of adult patients with symptomatic tenosynovial giant cell tumour (TGCT). TGCT is also referred to as giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath (GCT-TS) or pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). TGCT is a rare, neoplasm derived from the thin layer of tissue that lines the joints and tendons leading to the formation of a mass. TGCT normally affects young adults of both sexes and is associated with severe morbidity and functional limitation. Surgery is currently the standard treatment although some cases of TGCT have a poorer likelihood of successful cure with surgery due to the high risk of recurrence. There are no current systemic treatment for symptomatic TGCT.
Pexidartinib belongs to a group of medicines known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). It is given orally as a capsule and works by blocking a receptor called colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) to which a protein called macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) attaches. By attaching and blocking CSF1R, pexidartinib is expected to block the activity of M-CSF, preventing tumour growth and helping to delay the onset of the symptoms of the disease. If licensed, pexidartinib may offer the first systemic treatment option for adults with symptomatic TGCT which is associated with severe morbidity or functional limitations, and which is not amenable to improvement with surgery.
Brigatinib is a medicinal product that is being developed for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease have progressed following treatment with alectinib or ceritinib. NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer although a small proportion of NSCLC patients have a rearrangement in the ALK gene. Locally advanced or metastatic cancer means cancer has spread outside the lungs where it started, to other parts of the body and cannot be cured. Current treatment with drugs such as alectinib or ceritinib are effective in slowing the disease and helping patients to live longer, although some patients eventually develop treatment resistance and will require other therapies.