Pexidartinib is a medicinal product that is being developed for the treatment of adult patients with symptomatic tenosynovial giant cell tumour (TGCT). TGCT is also referred to as giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath (GCT-TS) or pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). TGCT is a rare, neoplasm derived from the thin layer of tissue that lines the joints and tendons leading to the formation of a mass. TGCT normally affects young adults of both sexes and is associated with severe morbidity and functional limitation. Surgery is currently the standard treatment although some cases of TGCT have a poorer likelihood of successful cure with surgery due to the high risk of recurrence. There are no current systemic treatment for symptomatic TGCT.
Pexidartinib belongs to a group of medicines known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). It is given orally as a capsule and works by blocking a receptor called colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) to which a protein called macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) attaches. By attaching and blocking CSF1R, pexidartinib is expected to block the activity of M-CSF, preventing tumour growth and helping to delay the onset of the symptoms of the disease. If licensed, pexidartinib may offer the first systemic treatment option for adults with symptomatic TGCT which is associated with severe morbidity or functional limitations, and which is not amenable to improvement with surgery.
Nivolumab in combination with cisplatin and fluorouracil is in clinical development for patients with unresectable, advanced, recurrent or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell cancer cell carcinoma. Advanced oesophageal cancer begins in the food pipe and spreads to other parts of the body. Squamous cell cancers develop from the cells that make up the inner lining of the oesophagus. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, persistent acid indigestion or heartburn, weight loss, pain in the throat, and chronic cough. Lifestyle factors are attributed to most oesophageal cancers, including smoking and being overweight.