PLX-PAD is in development for the treatment of hip fractures. Hip fractures are when the bones related to the hip are damaged. They can occur at any age, however it is most common in the older population. This leads to pain and difficulty moving. Hip replacements, surgery which replaces damaged areas of the hip with artificial implants, is a common treatment for hip fractures. As the surgery requires cutting the muscles either at the front or back of the pelvis, to access the hip and leg bone, this can lead to muscle weakening. There are no medicinal options for treating muscle injury after hip replacement. PLX-PAD is an intramuscular (into muscle) injection that includes cells to promote muscle regeneration. PLX-PAD cells respond to the body’s distress signals, which are sent from the site of injury, by secreting proteins to help the body to i) grow blood vessels to supply damaged tissue, ii) heal muscle and iii) dampen the inflammatory response (which is aggravated by injury). PLX-PAD is in development to promote muscle injury recovery for people undergoing hip replacement, which may reduce recovery time in this patient population.
Upadacitinib acts by selectively blocking a protein called Janus-Associated Kinase 1 (JAK1 and JAK1/3). JAKs contribute to the processes within the cell to produce an immune or inflammatory response. There is an emerging body of evidence establishing that JAK dependent enzymes are major contributors to the progression of immunemediated diseases such as AS and that blocking such enzymes can be beneficial. Upadacitinib is taken orally and if licensed, it will offer an additional treatment option for patients with active AS.