Gliomas are the most common type of brain tumours and they develop from cells that support the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. High grade gliomas refer to the fastest growing types of malignant (cancerous) gliomas that can spread into the healthy tissue. High-grade gliomas are more common in men than women, and the occurrence increases with age. Symptoms may be general or specific to the area of brain where the tumour is located. General symptoms include headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, seizures, drowsiness, personality changes, while more specific symptoms may include difficulties with hearing, speech, sight, movement and mood. After initial treatment, the majority of high grade gliomas will recur with worsening symptoms and quality of life.
Toca 511 administered by injection, and Toca FC administered orally, are under development for the treatment of high grade gliomas that recur after initial treatment with surgery and/or other chemotherapy. Toca 511 is a type of virus that infects the cancer cells allowing Toca FC, a type of chemotherapy, to specifically target and kill the cancer cells. The selective destruction of the cancer cells further increases the body’s natural immunity which may prevent the cancer from recurring. Ongoing studies have shown that both Toca 511 and Toca FC can be well tolerated and could be added to established cancer treatments.
Ixazomib citrate is a novel oral medicinal product that is already licensed in the UK for the treatment of MM in patients who have received at least one prior therapy (in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone). Ixazomib citrate offers the potential advantage over similar medicines in its class of being more effective in its anticancer activity, less toxic (reduced side effects) and more convenient to administer (through its weekly oral dosing). If approved as maintenance therapy following stem cell transplant in newly diagnosed MM patients, ixazomib citrate has the potential to improve the success rates of treatment by improving progression free survival and overall survival as well as presenting a more convenient way of administration that allows long term administration and improvement of patients’ quality of life.