Gastric cancer is cancer that starts anywhere inside the stomach or the stomach wall. Advanced gastric cancer can be locally advanced (has spread into the tissues around the stomach) or metastatic (has spread to at least one other part of the body such as the liver). Most gastric cancer cases are diagnosed at a late stage and in people aged 75 years and over. Advanced cancers have poor prognosis and usually cannot be cured. However, they may be controlled, and symptoms can be relieved through treatment.
Trifluridine in combination with tipiracil in a single oral tablet, is in development for the treatment of metastatic gastric cancer, in patients who are refractory (resistant) to two prior standard treatments for the advanced disease. Trifluridine is incorporated into the DNA where it prevents cells from dividing and multiplying. The addition of tipiracil helps increase the level of trifluridine in the blood by slowing its breakdown. If licensed, trifluridine in combination with tipiracil will be an additional treatment option for patients with gastric cancer who have failed two prior therapies, who currently have very few treatment options available.
Nivolumab is a type of immunotherapy that is currently licensed in the UK for the treatment of several types of advanced cancers such as melanoma, non‐small cell lung cancer, and kidney cancer. It blocks a protein called programmed death-1 (PD-1), which is found on the surface of a type of immune cells called T-cells. Blocking PD-1 stimulates the T-cells to kill the cancer cells. Temozolomide in combination with radiotherapy is currently licensed in the UK for newly diagnosed glioblastoma in adults. The addition of nivolumab to temozolomide and radiotherapy will potentially offer an additional first line treatment option for adult patients who are newly diagnosed MGMT-methylated glioblastoma.