Osimertinib for EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer – adjuvant
Osimertinib is in clinical development as an adjuvant treatment for resectable, early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer is one of the most common and serious types of cancer and NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer. An adjuvant treatment is an additional cancer treatment given after the primary treatment, to lower the risk of the cancer returning. Resectable cancer means that the cancer can be removed by surgery, which means the cancer is normally in earlier stages. A proportion of patients have mutations to the protein epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which controls cell growth. There are currently no recommended EGFR-targeted therapies for early stage NSCLC.
Durvalumab in combination with tremelimumab and chemotherapy for unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer
Durvalumab and tremelimumab are immunotherapies, meaning they target the immune system. Durvalumab binds to a protein called PD-L1 to prevent it from binding its target (PD-1). In doing so, durvalumab allows immune cells, called T cells, to be activated so that they can destroy the cancer cells. Tremelimumab binds a protein called CTLA4 on T-cells, activating them and allowing them to kill cancer cells. Durvalumab and tremelimumab are administered intravenously. If licensed, durvalumab in combination with tremelimumab and chemotherapy will offer an additional treatment option for patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic UC.
CC-486 for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
CC-486 is in development for relapsed or refractory angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). AITL is a fast-growing type of T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma marked by enlarged lymph nodes and increased antibodies in the blood. Other symptoms may include a skin rash, fever, weight loss, or night sweats. AITL is more resistant to conventional chemotherapy than other forms of lymphoma and is generally associated with a poor outcome. In relapsed or refractory disease, survival durations are in the range of only a few months meaning there is unmet medical need in this patient population.
Lisocabtagene maraleucel for relapsed or refractory, aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin Lymphoma – second line
Lisocabtagene maraleucel is an advanced immunotherapy administered intravenously that contains the patient’s own white blood cells (T-cells) that have been modified genetically in the laboratory so that they make a protein called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The CAR T-cells attach to a particular protein called CD19 on the surface of cancer cells resulting in the death of these cells. If licensed, will offer an additional treatment option for patients with relapsed/refractory, aggressive B-cell NHL who are not eligible for stem cell transplant.
Ibrutinib in combination with venetoclax for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma – first line
Ibrutinib in combination with venetoclax is being developed for elderly and at risk patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). CLL and SLL are types of cancer in which too many white blood cells are produced, in SLL cells build up in the lymph nodes, in CLL the cancer cells can be found in the blood and bone marrow. As these cells develop abnormally, they are unable to function, fight infection and reduce the production of healthy blood cells. These diseases are chronic and develop slowly. Treatment is complex and depends on a number of factors, including the extent of disease, previous treatment, patient’s age, symptoms and general state of health.
Abemaciclib for early breast cancer – adjuvant treatment
Abemaciclib is an oral cancer medicine. It works by blocking the activity of certain enzymes known as cyclin-dependant kinases (CDK) 4 and 6, which play a key role in regulating the way cells grow and divide. By blocking these enzymes, abemaciclib slows the growth of breast cancer cells. If licenced, abemaciclib will provide an additional treatment option for patients with early breast cancer who have undergone surgery.
Ipatasertib in addition to paclitaxel for locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer
Ipatasertib in addition to paclitaxel is in clinical development for the treatment of adults with locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with PIK3CA/AKT1/PTEN-altered tumour. This type of breast cancer is caused by a combination of genetic abnormalities and loss of some genes in the body. TNBC is an uncommon type of breast cancer whose cells do not have receptors for the hormones oestrogen and progesterone or HER2 protein. This means that many cancer treatments do not work for people with TNBC. Patients with TNBC have worse clinical outcomes and a unique pattern of recurrence compared with the other major subtypes of breast cancer. Patients with TNBC have been shown to have the highest rate of recurrence within the first 5 years after diagnosis.
Pembrolizumab in combination with ipilimumab for advanced non-small cell lung cancer
Pembrolizumab is a humanised monoclonal anti‐programmed cell death‐1 (PD‐1) antibody. Pembrolizumab works by improving the activity of white blood cells in killing cancer cells by blocking PD-L1. Ipilimumab increases the activity of T-cells against cancer cells. If licensed, this combination of pembrolizumab and ipilimumab administered intravenously could offer a treatment for patients with NSCLC whose tumours express high levels of PD-L1.
Nivolumab for hepatocellular carcinoma – adjuvant
Nivolumab is in clinical development for the treatment of a primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), which is cancer that originally develops in the liver and accounts for nine in ten primary liver cancer cases. Current treatment options commonly include surgical intervention such as liver transplants, as such there is a gap in treatment for minimally invasive pharmacological options.