Crizotinib for paediatric ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma or inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) are both rare conditions that usually affect children and young adults. ALCL is a type of cancer that occurs when T-cells, which contribute to the body’s immune system, become abnormal. IMTs are most commonly non-cancerous (benign), however in some cases the tumour can become cancerous (malignant). Both conditions can be ALK-positive (ALK+), this means that the tumour cells have a mutation in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) resulting in uncontrolled cell replication. These conditions may not be able to be treated through surgical removal of the tumour (unresectable); they may also come back after treatment (relapse) or be resistant to current treatment options (refractory).
Pembrolizumab in combination with lenvatinib for advanced melanoma – first line
Pembrolizumab is an immunotherapy, meaning it stimulates the body’s immune system by triggering T-cells (a type of white blood cells) to find and kill cancer cells. Lenvatinib is a targeted therapy drug that inhibits cancer growth by preventing the formation of new blood vessels. These drugs modulate different aspects of tumour biology, combining them, may result in improved efficacy and help overcome resistance to immunotherapy. Pembrolizumab in combination with lenvatinib (pembrolizumab administered intravenously and lenvatinib administered orally) would offer an additional first-line treatment option for previously untreated and unresectable advanced melanoma.
Cemiplimab in combination with chemotherapy for advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer – first-line
Cemiplimab in combination with chemotherapy is in clinical development for the treatment of advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC makes up the majority of lung cancers in the UK and at the metastatic stage (stage IV), the disease has already spread from the lungs to other sites. Symptoms of lung cancer include a persistent cough, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, aches and pains in the chest or shoulder, loss of appetite, weight loss and fatigue. Most patients with NSCLC are diagnosed at the advanced/metastatic stage where curative treatment with surgery is unsuitable. Advanced NSCLC is not usually curable; there is therefore the need for additional treatment options.
Cabozantinib in combination with atezolizumab for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma –first line
Oral cabozantinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that works by blocking the activity of enzymes known as tyrosine kinases which can be found in certain receptors in cancer cells. Intravenous atezolizumab is a monoclonal antibody, a type of protein designed to recognise and attach to a protein called PD-L1, which is present on many cancer cells. Their combination has shown promising antitumour activity and tolerability in patients with solid tumours including HCC. If licensed, cabozantinib in combination with atezolizumab will provide an additional first-line treatment option for patients with advanced HCC.
Loncastuximab Tesirine for relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma – third line
Loncastuximab tesirine is administered by intravenous infusion. It is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) where an antibody is joined to a drug that is designed to kill lymphoma cells. The antibody targets a protein called CD19, which is found on the surface of lymphoma cells. The drug is then released into the lymphoma cells resulting in the death of these cells. If licenced, loncastuximab tesirine will offer an additional treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL.
Belzutifan for von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated clear cell renal cell carcinoma – first line
Belzutifan is in clinical development for the treatment of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease-associated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). VHL is a hereditary disease that results in the body producing an increased amount of the protein hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) – 2α. This leads to an increased risk of tumours developing in various parts of the body including the kidney. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer. ccRCC is named as such because when this type of tumour is viewed under a microscope the cells appear clear. Currently patients with VHL disease have limited treatment options which focus on surgically removing tumours once they have developed.
Pembrolizumab for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer
Pembrolizumab is an immunotherapy drug administered by intravenous (IV) infusion. It works by improving the activity of white blood cells (T-cells) by blocking a protein, PD-L1, thereby increasing the ability of the immune system to kill cancer cells. If licenced, pembrolizumab could provide an additional treatment option for patients with platinum pre-treated recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer.
Mosunetuzumab for relapsed or refractory B-cell follicular lymphoma – third-line and greater
Mosunetuzumab is in clinical development for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell follicular lymphoma (FL). FL is a type of slow growing blood cancer that affects white blood cells. In FL, the affected white blood cells start to multiply in an abnormal way and begin to aggregate in certain parts of the body such as the lymph nodes. A recurrence of lymphoma after going into complete remission is known as a relapse. Lymphoma that is unresponsive to therapy it is called refractory lymphoma. The condition can become more difficult to treat if it is relapsed or refractory, as treatment options are limited.