JZP-458 for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a type of cancer affecting white blood cells, which results in overproduction of faulty cells. These cells take over the bone marrow leading to anaemia, infection, bruising and bleeding. ALL is a rare condition, usually affecting more children than adults. Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is similar to ALL, they differ in where they often occur in the body (lymph nodes and thymus gland in LBL, and blood and bone marrow in ALL), and they are both treated in the same way.
Pembrolizumab as adjuvant therapy for resected high-risk stage II melanoma
Melanoma is the most common skin cancer in the UK and is characterised by changes to mole size or shape. It is when melanocytes (cells that give skin its tan or brown colour) grow uncontrollably. Stage II melanoma is where the cancer has spread locally, as opposed to other areas of the body, and can result in a larger tumour sometimes with broken skin. Patients with high-risk stage 2 melanoma cancer may have an increased chance of the cancer returning after surgical resection (removal of the tumour) because of the tumour being thicker and deeper in the skin, which makes it difficult to remove all cancerous cells. There is currently no recommended systemic treatment after surgical resection if the cancer comes back in patients with stage II melanoma.
Trastuzumab deruxtecan for metastatic HER2 – positive breast cancer – second line
Trastuzumab deruxtecan is in clinical development for the treatment of adults with HER2- positive, unresectable and/or metastatic breast cancer who have previously been treated with trastuzumab and taxane. HER2-positive breast cancer is when the cancer tests positive for HER2 protein, which promotes the growth of cancer cells and tend to be more aggressive than other types of breast cancer. Metastatic breast cancer (stage IV) is when the cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes to other organs in the body, while unresectable means that the cancer cannot be treated by surgery. Treatment of the disease often involves the use of anti-HER2 therapies, chemotherapy, or a combination of both.
Cemiplimab for recurrent, persistent or metastatic cervical cancer – second line
Cemiplimab is in clinical development for the treatment of recurrent, persistent, or metastatic cervical cancer. Recurrent cancer is when the cancer returns months or years after the original treatment; persistent cancer is when the tumour does not respond to treatment or a second tumour develops despite the completion of treatment. Metastatic cancer is when the …
Lorlatinib for advanced ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer – first line
Lorlatinib is being investigated for the treatment of advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC comprises the majority of lung cancers in the UK. Symptoms of lung cancer include a persistent cough, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, aches and pains in the chest or shoulder, loss of appetite, weight loss and fatigue. While current treatments exist for ALK-postive NSCLC, significant unmet medical need remains for more effective treatment options as treatment with current options inevitably leads to further progression of the disease over time.
Olaparib in addition to abiraterone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer – First line
Olaparib is administered orally in tablet form and can lead to cancer cell death by blocking DNA repair by an enzyme (protein) called PARP. By blocking PARP enzymes, the damaged DNA in cancer cells cannot be repaired, and the cells die. Abiraterone works by stopping the body making testosterone which subsequently stops the cancer growing. If licensed, this combination would provide a first-line treatment for men with mCRPC.
Polatuzumab vedotin in addition to R-CHP for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma – first line
Polatuzumab vedotin is a first-in-class drug specifically developed for the treatment of cancers that affect the blood and lymph system. It is an antibody that binds to CD79b, which is a protein on the surface of cancerous B-cells. It is administered as an intravenous infusion, absorbed by the cancer cells and the chemotherapy agent linked to the antibody releases inside the cancer cells, stops them from dividing and kills them. If licenced polatuzumab vedotin in addition to R-CHP would offer an additional treatment option for patients with untreated DLBCL.
Durvalumab in addition to platinum based chemoradiation therapy for treating non-small-cell lung cancer
Durvalumab is given by intravenous infusion and works by blocking an immune protein called programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1). PD-L1 expression enables cancer cells to avoid recognition by the immune system. By blocking PD-L1, durvalumab allows the immune system to recognise and target the cancer cells. Addition of durvalumab to the current CRT treatment is thought to be more effective and improve overall survival rates compared to CRT alone. If licenced, durvalumab in addition to CRT may provide an additional treatment option for patients with unresectable, locally advanced NSCLC.