Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab for previously untreated unresectable or metastatic urothelial cancer – first-line
Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab is in clinical development for PD-L1 positive patients with previously untreated unresectable or metastatic urothelial cancer regardless of cisplatin eligibility. Urothelial cancer, a subset of bladder cancer, occurs on the lining of the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and urethra, and other parts of the urinary system. In some cases,the tumour spreads into the surrounding muscles or other parts of the body which means that it cannot be cured by surgery. Metastatic urothelial cancer occurs when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or bones. The symptom of urothelial cancer is blood in the urine, but symptoms may only appear once the cancer grows larger or into the deeper layers of the bladder wall for both men and women. Other symptoms may include increased frequency/urgency/pain of urine passing, weight loss, back/lower tummy/bone pain, fatigue and illness.
Tucatinib in addition to trastuzumab and capecitabine for advanced breast cancer
Tucatinib is an oral medicine that is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the HER2 protein. By inhibiting HER2, it is hoped tucatinib will inhibit the growth of HER2-positive tumours. If licenced, tucatinib in addition to trastuzumab and capecitabine will provide an additional treatment option for adults with advanced HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer.
JNJ-68284528 for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma
JNJ-68284528 is a type of gene therapy that targets a protein called BCMA (B cell maturation antigen) which is expressed on B-cells (a type of immune cell). Binding of JNJ-68284528 to BCMA prevents B-cell maturation and differentiation into plasma cells. JNJ-68284528 is administered as an intravenous infusion. Early stage clinical trials (phase II) have demonstrated both safety and efficacy of JNJ-68284528 in patients with relapsed/refractory MM and could therefore provide an additional treatment option for patients with the disease.
Pembrolizumab in addition to lenvatinib for PD-L1 positive (≥1%) non-small-cell lung cancer – first line
Lenvatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets several different growth factor receptors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR). By blocking these receptors, lenvatinib can reduce tumour growth. Pembrolizumab is a drug that works by improving the activity of white blood cells in killing cancer cells by blocking a protein, PD-L1. If licenced, lenvatinib (administered orally) in addition to pembrolizumab (administered intravenously) could provide an additional treatment option for adults with PD-L1 positive NSCLC.
Retifanlimab for squamous carcinoma of the anal canal – after platinum based chemotherapy
Retifanlimab is an intravenous drug. It works by binding to protein called PD-1 and blocks its interaction with programmed cell death ligands 1 and 2 (PD-L1 and PD-L2), thereby increasing the immune system’s ability to kill the cancer cells. If licensed, retifanlimab will provide a treatment option for patients with SCAC who have progressed on or are intolerant of platinum-based chemotherapy.
Selinexor for advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer – maintenance therapy
Selinexor works by selectively inhibiting nuclear export (SINE) compounds. By blocking exportin 1 (XPO1), selinexor blocks the nuclear export of tumour suppressor, growth regulatory, and anti-inflammatory proteins, leading to accumulation of these proteins in the nucleus and enhancing their anti-cancer activity in the cell. If licensed, selinexor will offer a maintenance treatment option for endometrial cancer after combination chemotherapy.
Asciminib for chronic myeloid leukaemia – chronic phase -third line
Asciminib is a TKI taken orally. TKIs block chemical messengers (enzymes) called tyrosine kinases, which promote cell growth and division, including of tumour cells, so blocking them may stop cancer growth. Asciminib works differently from all current approved TKIs by using a mechanism which may overcome resistance or side effects of treatment in patients on current TKIs. If approved, asciminib would offer an additional treatment option for chronic phase CML patients who have been treated with two or more TKIs.
Pembrolizumab for renal cell carcinoma – adjuvant therapy post nephrectomy
Pembrolizumab is administered by intravenous infusion and works by improving the activity of white blood cells (T-cells) thereby increasing the ability of the immune system to kill cancer cells. Given as an adjuvant therapy, it is hoped pembrolizumab will help clear the remaining cancer cells after surgery to remove the cancerous kidney. If licenced, pembrolizumab will offer the first adjuvant therapy for patientswith renal cell carcinoma post nephrectomy.