Carfilzomib in addition to daratumumab and dexamethasone for relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma
Carfilzomib, is a proteasome inhibitor. Proteasome is a system within the cells that breaks down proteins that are no longer needed. Cancer cells have an increased need to produce and break down proteins as they multiply rapidly. When carfilzomib stops the proteasome from breaking down proteins in the cancer cells, the proteins build up and cause the cells to die, slowing down the growth of the cancer. The addition of daratumumab and dexamethansone to carfilzomib may potentially improve outcomes and reduce side effects in patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM who have received prior therapies.
Atezolizumab in addition to paclitaxel for inoperable, locally advanced or metastatic triple negative breast cancer – first-line
Atezolizumab as an intravenous infusion in combination with an intravenous infusion of paclitaxel (chemotherapy) is in clinical development for the first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC is a type of breast cancer in which the cancer cells do not express receptors for oestrogen or progesterone or HER2 protein. Treatment of TNBC is challenging because of a lack of targeted therapy, aggressive disease course, and relatively poor prognosis. Treatment is usually through a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
Ixazomib citrate for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma inelgible for autologous stem cell transplant– maintenance therapy
Ixazomib citrate is a novel oral medicinal product that is already licensed in the UK for the treatment of MM in patients who have received at least one prior therapy (in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone). Ixazomib citrate offers the potential advantage over similar medicines in its class of being more effective in its anticancer activity, reduced side effects and more convenient to administer (through its weekly oral dosing). If approved as maintenance therapy for NDMM patients, ixazomib maintenance has the potential to prolong the time patients live without their disease getting worse (progression free survival) as well as offering more convenient oral dosing that allows long term administration and improvement of patients’ quality of life.
Ibrutinib in addition to rituximab for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia – first-line
Ibrutinib works against cancerous B lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cells affected by these diseases. It does this by blocking an enzyme called Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), which promotes survival of B lymphocytes and their migration to the organs where these cells normally divide. By blocking BTK, ibrutinib decreases the survival and migration of B lymphocytes, thereby delaying the progression of cancer. Ibrutinib is available in tablets taken orally. If licensed, ibrutinib in addition to rituximab will offer an additional first-line treatment option for untreated young and fit patients with CLL or SLL.
Brigatinib for ALK-positive, locally advanced or metastatic, non-small cell lung cancer previously treated with alectinib or ceritinib
Brigatinib is a medicinal product that is being developed for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease have progressed following treatment with alectinib or ceritinib. NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer although a small proportion of NSCLC patients have a rearrangement in the ALK gene. Locally advanced or metastatic cancer means cancer has spread outside the lungs where it started, to other parts of the body and cannot be cured. Current treatment with drugs such as alectinib or ceritinib are effective in slowing the disease and helping patients to live longer, although some patients eventually develop treatment resistance and will require other therapies.
Belantamab mafodotin for relapsed / refractory multiple myeloma – Fourth line
Belantamab mafodotin is in clinical development for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) in patients who are refractory or have relapsed to prior treatments. MM is a rare, incurable cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow where large amounts of abnormal plasma cells are produced and interfere with the production of red and white blood cells and platelets. People with MM will experience periods of time without symptoms followed by periods when the illness comes back (‘relapsed’ MM). Eventually the periods without symptoms will shorten and the illness will become immune to the drugs given to treat it (‘refractory’ MM).
Nivolumab and relatlimab for untreated advanced or metastatic melanoma – first line
Nivolumab works by improving the activity of white blood cells increasing the ability of the immune system to kill cancer cells. Relatlimab has the potential to increase the immune system response and kill cancer cells. If licenced for this indication, a fixed dose combination of intravenous nivolumab and relatlimab may provide a new therapeutic option for untreated patients that shows similar adverse effects than treatment with nivolumab alone.
Trastuzumab deruxtecan for HER2-positive metastatic or unresectable breast cancer
Trastuzumab deruxtecan is in clinical development for the treatment of adults with HER2-positive, unresectable and/or metastatic breast cancer who have previously received anti-HER2 therapies. HER2-positive breast cancer is when the cancer tests positive for HER2 protein, which promotes the growth of cancer cells and tend to be more aggressive than other types of breast cancer. Metastatic breast cancer (stage IV) is when the cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes to other organs in the body while unresectable means that the cancer cannot be treated by surgery. Treatment of the disease often involve the use of anti-HER2 therapies, chemotherapy or a combination of both.
Pexidartinib for tenosynovial giant cell tumour
Pexidartinib is a medicinal product that is being developed for the treatment of adult patients with symptomatic tenosynovial giant cell tumour (TGCT). TGCT is also referred to as giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath (GCT-TS) or pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). TGCT is a rare, neoplasm derived from the thin layer of tissue that lines the joints and tendons leading to the formation of a mass. TGCT normally affects young adults of both sexes and is associated with severe morbidity and functional limitation. Surgery is currently the standard treatment although some cases of TGCT have a poorer likelihood of successful cure with surgery due to the high risk of recurrence. There are no current systemic treatment for symptomatic TGCT.
Axicabtagene ciloleucel for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma – second-line
Axicabtagene ciloleucel is in clinical development as second-line treatment for adult patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). DLBCL is a cancer affecting a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes or B-cells. DLBCL is an aggressive cancer and although it can be cured in more than half of people affected, it remains a serious and life threatening disease. A relapse is when the lymphoma comes back after successful treatment and refractory means the lymphoma did not respond to the first course of treatment.