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This search function provides links to outputs produced by NIHR Innovation Observatory. These are briefing notes or reports on new or repurposed technologies. This search will not return all technologies currently in development as these outputs are produced as required for our stakeholders.

Innovation Observatory > Reports > Cancer and Palliative Care

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Drugs

December 2020

JZP-458 for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a type of cancer affecting white blood cells, which results in overproduction of faulty cells. These cells take over the bone marrow leading to anaemia, infection, bruising and bleeding. ALL is a rare condition, usually affecting more children than adults. Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is similar to ALL, they differ in where they often occur in the body (lymph nodes and thymus gland in LBL, and blood and bone marrow in ALL), and they are both treated in the same way.

Drugs

December 2020

Pembrolizumab with or without standard adjuvant therapy after resection for nonsmall-cell lung cancer – adjuvant

Adjuvant pembrolizumab with or without standard adjuvant treatment is in clinical development for the treatment of early-stage operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after resection. NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer. Early-stage lung cancer is typically treated with surgery to remove either part of or the whole of the lung, with adjuvant …

Drugs

December 2020

Pembrolizumab as adjuvant therapy for resected high-risk stage II melanoma

Melanoma is the most common skin cancer in the UK and is characterised by changes to mole size or shape. It is when melanocytes (cells that give skin its tan or brown colour) grow uncontrollably. Stage II melanoma is where the cancer has spread locally, as opposed to other areas of the body, and can result in a larger tumour sometimes with broken skin. Patients with high-risk stage 2 melanoma cancer may have an increased chance of the cancer returning after surgical resection (removal of the tumour) because of the tumour being thicker and deeper in the skin, which makes it difficult to remove all cancerous cells. There is currently no recommended systemic treatment after surgical resection if the cancer comes back in patients with stage II melanoma.

Drugs

December 2020

Trastuzumab deruxtecan for metastatic HER2 – positive breast cancer – second line

Trastuzumab deruxtecan is in clinical development for the treatment of adults with HER2- positive, unresectable and/or metastatic breast cancer who have previously been treated with trastuzumab and taxane. HER2-positive breast cancer is when the cancer tests positive for HER2 protein, which promotes the growth of cancer cells and tend to be more aggressive than other types of breast cancer. Metastatic breast cancer (stage IV) is when the cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes to other organs in the body, while unresectable means that the cancer cannot be treated by surgery. Treatment of the disease often involves the use of anti-HER2 therapies, chemotherapy, or a combination of both.

Drugs

December 2020

Cemiplimab for recurrent, persistent or metastatic cervical cancer – second line

Cemiplimab is in clinical development for the treatment of recurrent, persistent, or metastatic cervical cancer. Recurrent cancer is when the cancer returns months or years after the original treatment; persistent cancer is when the tumour does not respond to treatment or a second tumour develops despite the completion of treatment. Metastatic cancer is when the …

Drugs

December 2020

Lorlatinib for advanced ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer – first line

Lorlatinib is being investigated for the treatment of advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC comprises the majority of lung cancers in the UK. Symptoms of lung cancer include a persistent cough, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, aches and pains in the chest or shoulder, loss of appetite, weight loss and fatigue. While current treatments exist for ALK-postive NSCLC, significant unmet medical need remains for more effective treatment options as treatment with current options inevitably leads to further progression of the disease over time.

Drugs

November 2020

Olaparib in addition to abiraterone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer – First line

Olaparib is administered orally in tablet form and can lead to cancer cell death by blocking DNA repair by an enzyme (protein) called PARP. By blocking PARP enzymes, the damaged DNA in cancer cells cannot be repaired, and the cells die. Abiraterone works by stopping the body making testosterone which subsequently stops the cancer growing. If licensed, this combination would provide a first-line treatment for men with mCRPC.

Drugs

November 2020

Polatuzumab vedotin in addition to R-CHP for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma – first line

Polatuzumab vedotin is a first-in-class drug specifically developed for the treatment of cancers that affect the blood and lymph system. It is an antibody that binds to CD79b, which is a protein on the surface of cancerous B-cells. It is administered as an intravenous infusion, absorbed by the cancer cells and the chemotherapy agent linked to the antibody releases inside the cancer cells, stops them from dividing and kills them. If licenced polatuzumab vedotin in addition to R-CHP would offer an additional treatment option for patients with untreated DLBCL.

Drugs

October 2020

Durvalumab in addition to platinum based chemoradiation therapy for treating non-small-cell lung cancer

Durvalumab is given by intravenous infusion and works by blocking an immune protein called programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1). PD-L1 expression enables cancer cells to avoid recognition by the immune system. By blocking PD-L1, durvalumab allows the immune system to recognise and target the cancer cells. Addition of durvalumab to the current CRT treatment is thought to be more effective and improve overall survival rates compared to CRT alone. If licenced, durvalumab in addition to CRT may provide an additional treatment option for patients with unresectable, locally advanced NSCLC.

Drugs

October 2020

Lisocabtagene maraleucel for transplant-eligible and ineligible, relapsed or refractory, aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma – second-line

Lisocabtagene maraleucel is administered intravenously. It contains the patient’s white blood cells (T-cells) that have been modified genetically in the laboratory so that they make a protein called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The CAR T-cells attach to a particular protein called CD19 on the surface of cancer cells resulting in the death of these cells. If licensed, lisocabtagene maraleucel will offer a treatment option for adult patients with high-risk, relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell NHL.

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