Niraparib for advanced ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer – maintenance therapy
Niraparib as an oral formulation is in clinical development for maintenance therapy in patients with advanced ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer following response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Ovarian cancer includes a group of tumours that arise from diverse types of tissue contained in the ovary. The most common type of ovarian cancer arises …
Nivolumab for oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer – adjuvant
Nivolumab is a medicinal product that is being developed for the adjuvant treatment (after the primary treatment) of patients with resected oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer. Oesophageal develops when abnormal cells in the gullet (oesophagus) grow in an uncontrolled way. The lower end of the oesophagus that joins the stomach is called the gastro oesophageal …
Atezolizumab for stage IV non-squamous or squamous non-small cell lung cancer
Atezolizumab is in clinical development for stage IV non-squamous or squamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC makes up the majority of lung cancers in the UK.
Stage IV (advanced/metastatic) NSCLC is when the cancer has spread beyond the lung which was initially affected, most often to the liver, the adrenal glands, the bones, and the
brain. Most patients with NSCLC are diagnosed at the advanced/metastatic stage where curative treatment with surgery is unsuitable. Currently, chemotherapy remains the main
first line option at this stage and often not well tolerated by many patients.
Pembrolizumab in addition to platinum therapy and radiation for unresectable locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Pembrolizumab in addition to platinum therapy and radiation is in clinical development for the treatment of unresectable locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancers that are collectively known as head and neck cancers usually begin in the squamous cells that line the moist, mucosal surfaces inside the head and neck (for example, inside the mouth, the nose, and the throat). The main risk factors for squamous cell carcinomas are smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol. Symptoms may include sore throat, difficulty swallowing and pain in the ears and others. Treatment options for cancer that has spread usually involve chemotherapy such as (platinum-based therapy) and/or radiotherapy and focus on relieving symptoms and prolonging life rather than curing the cancer.
Atezolizumab in combination with bevacizumab for untreated unresectable or advanced hepatocellular carcinoma
Atezolizumab in combination with bevacizumab is currently in clinical development for the treatment of patients with an unresectable or advanced type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that have not received previous treatment. HCC is the most common type of liver cancer and occurs mainly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Advanced or metastatic HCC occurs when the cancer has spread to lymph nodes or to other organs. Advanced unresectable HCC is often diagnosed late in life and has a poor prognosis. It is a debilitating condition with many distressing symptoms, including pain, digestive problems and weight loss.
Spartalizumab in addition to dabrafenib and trametinib for unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600 mutant melanoma – first‐line
Spartalizumab in addition to dabrafenib and trametinib, is in clinical development for patients with previously untreated unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600 mutant
melanoma. Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and life‐threatening form of skin cancer. General symptoms of advanced melanoma may include weight loss, loss
of appetite and fatigue. Factors associated with a higher risk of developing melanoma include a fair skin, exposure to sunlight and other sources of ultraviolet (UV) energy,
and a history of sunburn or moles.
Ramucirumab in addition to erlotinib for EGFR mutation-positive metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer
Ramucirumab has been designed to attach to a receptor for a protein called Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The VEGF receptor can be present at high levels in tumours and helps in the development of new blood vessels that supply the tumours. Ramucirumab blocks this action by blocking this receptor, thereby reducing the blood supply to the tumour and slowing the growth of the cancer. Erlotinib is currently a standard of care first-line treatment for locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with EGFR mutations. It is thought that the addition of ramucirumab to erlotinib might improve its efficacy and provide an additional benefit by delaying/suppressing the EGFR mutation in patients with NSCLC.
Olaparib in combination with bevacizumab for ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer – maintenance therapy
Olaparib belongs to a group of drugs called PARP enzyme inhibitors while bevacizumab is an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody. Both drugs act in different but synergistic ways to kill tumour cells. It is thought that bevacizumab may increase the sensitivity of olaparib to killing the tumour cells. Olaparib administered orally as a monotherapy is already licensed as a maintenance therapy of advanced ovarian cancer. The addition of bevacizumab given by intravenous infusions may potentially improve treatment outcomes.