Pembrolizumab inaddition to chemotherapy for persistent, recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer – first line
Pembrolizumab is an immunomodulatory medicinal product, meaning that it helps the immune system to recognise and attack cancer cells. It is administered by intravenous infusion and is currently licensed in the UK for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancer – amongst others. If licensed, pembrolizumab, in addition to chemotherapy, would offer an alternative treatment for those with advanced, recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer.
Tafasitamab in combination with lenalidomide for treating relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Tafasitamab in combination with lenalidomide is currently in clinical development for the treatment of relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). DLBCL is a type of blood cancer that develops when white blood cells, called lymphocytes, grow out of control. The affected lymphocytes lose their infection-fighting ability making the body more susceptible to infection. The first symptom of DLBCL is often a painful swelling in the neck, armpit or groin but there may be other more general symptoms such as night sweats, unintentional weight loss or high temperature. Relapsed cancer refers to cancer that initially responded to treatment but then returned. Refractory cancer refers to cancer that did not respond to treatment.
Atezolizumab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy for untreated locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer – first line
Atezolizumab is in clinical development, in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy, for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer, who have received no prior systemic therapy (a drug which travels through the bloodstream and affects the whole body). Urothelial cancer, a subset of bladder cancer, occurs on the lining of the bladder, and other parts of the urinary system. In advanced urothelial cancer, the cancer has grown into deeper layers including connective tissue or muscle. Metastatic urothelial cancer occurs when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or bones.
AMG 510 for KRAS G12c mutated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer – after prior standard therapy
AMG 510 is in clinical development for the treatment of adults with KRASG12C mutated, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer and a small proportion of patients with NSCLC have tumours which carry the genetic mutation KRASG12C. Metastatic NSCLC describes tumours that have spread from the lungs to other parts of the body. Current NSCLC treatment depends largely on the stage of the cancer and any genetic mutations identified in the tumours and can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted cancer drugs and immunotherapy. Despite a wide range of treatments being available for lung cancers, there are currently no approved treatments for KRASG12C mutated, metastatic NSCLC.
Pembrolizumab in addition to docetaxel for chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer – second line
Pembrolizumab in addition to docetaxel is in clinical development for patients with prostate cancer which has spread from its original site (i.e. is metastatic), is untreatable via testosterone suppression therapy (i.e. is castration resistant), and where the patient has not received chemotherapy (i.e. chemotherapy-naïve). Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate gland (a small organ in a man’s pelvis) and is the most common cancer in men in the UK. There are three stages: localised, locally advanced and advanced (or metastatic) prostate cancer. The symptoms may vary depending on the stage of cancer but can include pain, tiredness, and problems emptying the bladder and the bowels.
Daratumumab in addition to pomalidomide and dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma
Daratumumab is a type of immune therapy that acts by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells in MM via a surface protein called CD38. Daratumumab monotherapy is already licenced for relapsed/refractory MM. Pomalidomide in combination with dexamethasone is also currently licenced to treat relapsed/refractory MM. Early findings from trials have demonstrated that the addition of daratumumab to pomalidomide and dexamethasone may further stimulate the immune system and directly act against cancer cells in MM, potentially providing another treatment option for patients whose disease has progressed on previous treatments.
Niraparib for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with DNA-repair anomalies
Niraparib is a medicinal product taken orally. It works by blocking a protein called poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP). It blocks the action of PARP-1 and PARP-2 enzymes that help in repairing damaged DNA in cells when they divide to make new cells. By blocking PARP enzymes, the damaged DNA in cancer cells cannot be repaired, and the cells die. If licensed, niraparib will offer an additional treatment option for men with mCRPC with DNA-repair anomalies.
Selinexor in addition to bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma
Selinexor is the first in a new family of drugs known as selective inhibition of nuclear export (SINE) compounds that blocks a protein called XPO1. By blocking XPO1, Selinexor blocks the nuclear export of tumour suppressor, growth regulatory, and anti-inflammatory proteins, leading to accumulation of these proteins in the nucleus and enhancing their anti-cancer activity in the cell. Bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone are already currently used in progressive MM. If licensed, the addition of Selinexor to bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone would increase the treatment options for RRMM, a patient group with clear unmet need.