Brigatinib for ALK-positive, locally advanced or metastatic, non-small cell lung cancer previously treated with alectinib or ceritinib
Brigatinib is a medicinal product that is being developed for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease have progressed following treatment with alectinib or ceritinib. NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer although a small proportion of NSCLC patients have a rearrangement in the ALK gene. Locally advanced or metastatic cancer means cancer has spread outside the lungs where it started, to other parts of the body and cannot be cured. Current treatment with drugs such as alectinib or ceritinib are effective in slowing the disease and helping patients to live longer, although some patients eventually develop treatment resistance and will require other therapies.
Belantamab mafodotin for relapsed / refractory multiple myeloma – Fourth line
Belantamab mafodotin is in clinical development for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) in patients who are refractory or have relapsed to prior treatments. MM is a rare, incurable cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow where large amounts of abnormal plasma cells are produced and interfere with the production of red and white blood cells and platelets. People with MM will experience periods of time without symptoms followed by periods when the illness comes back (‘relapsed’ MM). Eventually the periods without symptoms will shorten and the illness will become immune to the drugs given to treat it (‘refractory’ MM).
Nivolumab and relatlimab for untreated advanced or metastatic melanoma – first line
Nivolumab works by improving the activity of white blood cells increasing the ability of the immune system to kill cancer cells. Relatlimab has the potential to increase the immune system response and kill cancer cells. If licenced for this indication, a fixed dose combination of intravenous nivolumab and relatlimab may provide a new therapeutic option for untreated patients that shows similar adverse effects than treatment with nivolumab alone.
Trastuzumab deruxtecan for HER2-positive metastatic or unresectable breast cancer
Trastuzumab deruxtecan is in clinical development for the treatment of adults with HER2-positive, unresectable and/or metastatic breast cancer who have previously received anti-HER2 therapies. HER2-positive breast cancer is when the cancer tests positive for HER2 protein, which promotes the growth of cancer cells and tend to be more aggressive than other types of breast cancer. Metastatic breast cancer (stage IV) is when the cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes to other organs in the body while unresectable means that the cancer cannot be treated by surgery. Treatment of the disease often involve the use of anti-HER2 therapies, chemotherapy or a combination of both.
Pexidartinib for tenosynovial giant cell tumour
Pexidartinib is a medicinal product that is being developed for the treatment of adult patients with symptomatic tenosynovial giant cell tumour (TGCT). TGCT is also referred to as giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath (GCT-TS) or pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS). TGCT is a rare, neoplasm derived from the thin layer of tissue that lines the joints and tendons leading to the formation of a mass. TGCT normally affects young adults of both sexes and is associated with severe morbidity and functional limitation. Surgery is currently the standard treatment although some cases of TGCT have a poorer likelihood of successful cure with surgery due to the high risk of recurrence. There are no current systemic treatment for symptomatic TGCT.
Axicabtagene ciloleucel for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma – second-line
Axicabtagene ciloleucel is in clinical development as second-line treatment for adult patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). DLBCL is a cancer affecting a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes or B-cells. DLBCL is an aggressive cancer and although it can be cured in more than half of people affected, it remains a serious and life threatening disease. A relapse is when the lymphoma comes back after successful treatment and refractory means the lymphoma did not respond to the first course of treatment.
Pembrolizumab in addition to chemotherapy for perioperative treatment of gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma
Pembrolizumab in addition to chemotherapy is in clinical development for gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer. Gastric cancer is cancer that starts anywhere inside the stomach or the stomach wall. Initial symptoms of disease are similar to other stomach conditions but symptoms of advanced stages may include a lack of appetite and subsequent weight loss; fluid in the abdomen and blood in the stool. Because of the nature of symptoms, gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Surgery is a treatment option and often combined with chemotherapy given before (neo-adjuvant) and after (adjuvant) the surgery to improve treatment outcomes.
Axicabtagene ciloleucel for relapsed/refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Axicabtagene ciloleucel is in clinical development as treatment for adult patients with relapsed/refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In NHL, the affected lymphocytes start to multiply in an abnormal way and begin to collect in certain parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes. Indolent, or low grade NHL tends to grow very slowly. Types of low-grade NHL include follicular and marginal zone lymphoma. Relapse means that the lymphoma has come back after going into complete remission. Lymphoma that does not go into remission with treatment is known as refractory lymphoma. Treatment options for relapsed/refractory indolent NHL after two priori treatments are limited.
Nivolumab for high risk invasive urothelial carcinoma – adjuvant
Nivolumab is in development for the treatment of a type of bladder cancer that is at high risk of spreading beyond the lining of the bladder into the surrounding muscle. Bladder cancer starts when cells that make up the urinary bladder start to grow out of control. As more cancer cells develop, they can form a tumour and, with time, spread to other parts of the body. Urothelial cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer. High risk invasive urothelial cancer is when there is a greater chance for the cancer cells spreading to the lymph glands around the bladder and therefore patients have a reduced chance of cure.