Selpercatinib for metastatic RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer
Selpercatinib is in clinical development for the treatment of metastatic RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer and at the metastatic stage the disease has already spread from the lungs to other sites. Around 2% of these patients will have tumours that contain fusion mutations in the RET gene. Cells in these tumour produce altered RET signalling receptors that allow uncontrolled cancer growth. Currently the only treatment options that attempt to inhibit RET fusion-positive tumour activity are nonselective multikinase inhibitors.
Durvalumab for recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck – first line
Durvalumab is a medicinal product currently in development for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). SCCHN is a cancer that arises from cells called squamous cells. Squamous cells are found in the outer layer of skin and in the mucous membranes, the moist tissues that line body cavities such as the airways and intestines. SCCHN develops in the mouth, nose and throat. Recurrent or metastatic SCCHN typically exhibits poor patient outcomes, for which more effective therapies are required.
Pembrolizumab in addition to trastuzumab and chemotherapy for HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma – First-line
Pembrolizumab in addition to trastuzumab and chemotherapy is being developed for patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Gastric (stomach) cancer is cancer that starts anywhere inside the stomach or the stomach wall. Advanced gastric cancer means that a cancer that began in the stomach has spread to at least one other part of the body, such as the liver or lungs. HER2-positive means the cancer cells have too much HER2 protein on the surface of their cells, which can help cancer cells to grow. Advanced or metastatic cancer cannot usually be cured and current treatment aim to control the disease, relieve symptoms, and give patients a better quality of life. Trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy is a current treatment option.
Selpercatinib for advanced thyroid cancer with RET alterations
Selpercatinib is a first-in-class oral precision cancer medicine designed to selectively bind to cancers that harbour genetic abnormalities in the RET proteins. This binding inhibits the RET receptor signalling which in turn inhibits the tumour cell growth and may also prevent resistance to the treatment from developing. Selpercatinib is being developed for various RET-altered advanced thyroid cancers with early results indicating significantly improved outcomes. If licensed, selpercatinib will offer a treatment option for patients with advanced RET-mutant MTC and advanced RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer who have progressed following prior treatment and have no acceptable alternative treatment options.
Tisotumab vedotin for recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer
Tisotumab vedotin is currently in clinical development for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer who have received at least one prior systemic therapy. Cervical cancer develops in a woman’s cervix (lower part of the womb). It mainly affects sexually active women aged between 30 and 45 years. Cervical cancer often has no symptoms in its early stages. Cervical cancer that has spread to another part of the body is called advanced or metastatic cancer. Cancer that returns after months or years of the completion of the initial treatment is called recurrent cancer. The most common symptom of cervical cancer includes bleeding from the vagina at times other than the usual periods. Despite the recent developments, the prognosis remains poor and systemic therapy options are needed for women with recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer.
Pemigatinib for locally advanced or metastatic, relapsed or refractory cholangiocarcinoma with FGFR2 fusion or rearrangement
Pemigatinib is administered orally and it works by blocking receptors (targets) called fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). FGFRs are found in many cancer cells and play a key role in the growth and spread of the cancer cells. By blocking the FGFR, pemigatinib is expected to reduce the growth and spread of the cancer. If licensed, pemigatinib may offer an additional treatment option for patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma with FGFR2 fusion or rearrangement who have failed previous therapy.
Atezolizumab for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma –adjuvant
Atezolizumab is currently in clinical development for the treatment of patients muscle-invasive urothelial cancer (MIUC) including muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) patients who are at high risk following resection. MIBC is a cancer that spreads into the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. MIBC starts in the inner bladder layer and then grows in the deep muscle. While UTUC can arise along any part of the urinary tract lined with urothelium with the majority of cases in the lower tract and rest in the upper tract. Over time the tumour may grow outside the bladder into tissues close by and then may spread to lymph nodes, the lungs, the liver and other parts of the body. The current standard care of treatment includes a surgery which might not be adequate and some patients might be at high risk for recurrence.
Avelumab in addition to best supportive care for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer
Avelumab in addition to best supportive care (BSC) is in clinical development for the maintenance treatments of adults with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer that did not progress on or following completion of first-line chemotherapy. Urothelial cancer occurs on the lining of the bladder and other parts of the urinary system. In advanced urothelial cancer, cancer has grown into deeper layers including connective tissue or muscle. Metastatic urothelial cancer is when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or bones. Urothelial cancer usually occurs in patients aged 60 years and older, where patients may have other medical conditions or are not fit enough to be given certain treatments.