Olaparib in addition to abiraterone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer – First line
Olaparib is administered orally in tablet form and can lead to cancer cell death by blocking DNA repair by an enzyme (protein) called PARP. By blocking PARP enzymes, the damaged DNA in cancer cells cannot be repaired, and the cells die. Abiraterone works by stopping the body making testosterone which subsequently stops the cancer growing. If licensed, this combination would provide a first-line treatment for men with mCRPC.
Polatuzumab vedotin in addition to R-CHP for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma – first line
Polatuzumab vedotin is a first-in-class drug specifically developed for the treatment of cancers that affect the blood and lymph system. It is an antibody that binds to CD79b, which is a protein on the surface of cancerous B-cells. It is administered as an intravenous infusion, absorbed by the cancer cells and the chemotherapy agent linked to the antibody releases inside the cancer cells, stops them from dividing and kills them. If licenced polatuzumab vedotin in addition to R-CHP would offer an additional treatment option for patients with untreated DLBCL.
Durvalumab in addition to platinum based chemoradiation therapy for treating non-small-cell lung cancer
Durvalumab is given by intravenous infusion and works by blocking an immune protein called programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1). PD-L1 expression enables cancer cells to avoid recognition by the immune system. By blocking PD-L1, durvalumab allows the immune system to recognise and target the cancer cells. Addition of durvalumab to the current CRT treatment is thought to be more effective and improve overall survival rates compared to CRT alone. If licenced, durvalumab in addition to CRT may provide an additional treatment option for patients with unresectable, locally advanced NSCLC.
Atezolizumab in combination with chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer- neoadjuvant and adjuvant
Atezolizumab is a type of protein called an antibody, which can bind to a protein called programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) to prevent it from interacting with its target (PD-1). Thus, helping immune cells kill cancer cells and is used to treat many different types of cancer that express PD-L1. If licensed, atezolizumab would offer a neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment option for patients with stage II, IIIA, or select IIIB NSCLC.
Olaparib for BRCA mutated and high risk HER2 negative breast cancer – adjuvant therapy
Olaparib is in clinical development for the adjuvant treatment of adults who are breast cancer type 1 and type 2 susceptibility protein (BRCA) mutant and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative and have completed local treatment and (neo)-adjuvant chemotherapy. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are proteins that help repair damaged DNA.
CC-486 for maintenance therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia
CC-486 is a drug that can be incorporated into the genetic material of cells instead of their natural building-block, cytidine. It is thought to work by altering the way the cell turns genes on and off and interfering with the production of new RNA and DNA, leading to the death of rapidly dividing cancer cells that are not responsive to normal growth control mechanism. Its oral route of administration avoids injection-site reactions and may enhance patient convenience. The benefits of extended CC-486 dosing and long‐term treatment are likely related to the impact on hypomethylation, potentially enhancing clinical activity of the drug by increasing exposure to cycling malignant cells. If licensed, CC-486 will provide an additional maintenance therapy options for older AML patients who achieved CR or CRi following IC and who are not candidates for or choose not to proceed to HSCT.
Liposomal cytarabine-daunorubicin for treating relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia in paediatric patients.
Liposomal cytarabine-daunorubicin is made up of the chemotherapy drugs daunorubicin and cytarabine contained within fat-based particles called liposomes. Liposomal cytarabinedaunorubicin is delivered by intravenous infusion and provides controlled release of daunorubicin and cytarabine. Daunorubicin works by interrupting the copying of DNA which is necessary for cancer cell growth and cytarabine works by inhibiting DNA production to kill cancerous cells. If licenced, liposomal cytarabine-daunorubicin may offer an additional treatment option for paediatric patients with relapsed or refractory AML.
Bintrafusp alfa for locally advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancer – second-line
Bintrafusp alfa, delivered via intravenous injection, is a novel bi-functional fusion protein that is composed of an antibody fused with a receptor. Chemotherapy aims to kill cancer cells by directly attacking them, whereas bintrafusp alfa works twofold by preventing cancer from being resistant to a patient’s immune system and stopping cancer cells from growing.