Atezolizumab in combination with nab-paclitaxel as neoadjuvant treatment for early stage triple-negative breast cancer
Atezolizumab is a cancer medicine that enhances T-cell (part of the immune system) activity against tumours. Nab-paclitaxel is a chemotherapy that combines the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel with a protein called albumin. It inhibits cell growth by preventing cell division. The combination may offer an additional neoadjuvant treatment option to improve clinical efficacy in the treatment of people with early stage TNBC, an aggressive disease with no approved targeted therapy.
Polatuzumab vedotin in combination with rituximab and bendamustine for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Polatuzumab vedotin is a first-in-class antibody drug specifically developed for the treatment of cancers that affect the blood and lymph system. It is a monoclonal antibody that acts by selectively binding to CD79b, a protein which is abundantly expressed on the surface of B-cells. It is administered as an intravenous infusion, absorbed by the cancer cells and the chemotherapy agent linked to the antibody releases inside the cancer cells and destroys them. Adding polatuzumab vedotin to bendamustine with rituximab may improve effectiveness in patients whose disease had come back or in whom other treatment had not worked well enough.
Pegargiminase in addition to pemetrexed and cisplatin for advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma – first line
Pegargiminase is a medicinal product currently being developed to be given in addition to pemetrexed and cisplatin for the treatment of advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma. Malignant pleural mesothelioma is rare a type of cancer that affects the outer linings of the lungs and the internal chest wall. Mesothelioma is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Malignant pleural mesotheliomas are most often surgically unresectable, and they respond poorly to current chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma
Pembrolizumab, given by intravenous infusion, acts by binding to a protein called antiprogrammed death‐ligand 1 (PD‐L1) that is found on the cancer cells or immune cells trying
to attack cancer cells. Binding to this protein can lead to the activation of the body’s immune system to fight tumour cells. In cHL, pembrolizumab has promising results. If licensed it will
provide a treatment option for cHL patients who have failed ASCT or are not eligible for it.
Leuprorelin acetate for advanced breast cancer in pre or perimenopausal women – adjuvant
Leuprorelin is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue, when given chronically will block the production of oestrogen and progesterone hormones from the ovaries. A similar drug currently commonly used is goserelin, which is given as an injection every 4 weeks. If licensed, leuprorelin acetate will offer an additional adjuvant treatment option for pre and perimenopausal women with advanced breast cancer that is suitable for hormonal manipulation.
Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab in addition to chemotherapy for treating non-small cell lung cancer – first line
Nivolumab works by binding to a receptor called programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, which blocks the proteins PD-L1 and PD-L2 from interacting with it. This stimulates immune cells to attack tumours, slowing their growth. Ipilimumab works in the same way but by blocking the effect of a different protein, CTLA-4. It is thought these drugs in combination may result in an improved or greater anti-tumour effect. If licenced, Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab in addition to standard of care chemotherapy would provide an additional first-line treatment option for patients with metastatic NSCLC.
Venetoclax in combination with a hypomethylating agent or low dose cytarabine for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia
Venetoclax blocks the action of a specific protein which is present in high amounts in AML cells. This results in the death of the cancer cells and thereby slows the progression of the disease. Venetoclax is already licensed to treat other types of leukaemia and is thought that it might be of significant benefit for patients with AML when used in combination with other medicines in patients who cannot receive standard high dose treatment. Venetoclax in combination with a hypomethylating agent (azacitidine or decitabine) or low dose cytarabine may offer a first-line treatment option for newly diagnosed patients with AML.
Venetoclax in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone for relapsed multiple myeloma – second line and beyond
Venetoclax acts by blocking a protein called B-cell lymphoma (BCL)-2 that mediates the survival of MM cells. Bortezomib and dexamethasone are currently used to treat MM and it is hypothesised that both working via different mechanisms can improve sensitivity to Venetoclax in relapsed MM. The combination of venetoclax, bortezomib, and dexamethasone will offer an additional treatment option for patients with relapsed MM in patients who have received at least one, but no more than three, prior lines of therapy.
Nivolumab in addition to radiation therapy for glioblastoma – first line
Nivolumab is an immunotherapy product that is currently licensed in the EU/UK for the treatment of several types of advanced cancers such as melanoma, non‐small cell lung
cancer, and kidney cancer. It is a monoclonal antibody that acts by preventing the inhibition of T‐cells (part of the body’s immune system that fight cancer) through binding to a protein
called programmed cell death 1 (PD‐1). If licensed, nivolumab in combination with radiation therapy will offer an additional first‐line treatment option for patients with glioblastoma.