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This search function provides links to outputs produced by NIHR Innovation Observatory. These are briefing notes or reports on new or repurposed technologies. This search will not return all technologies currently in development as these outputs are produced as required for our stakeholders.

Innovation Observatory > Reports > Cancer and Palliative Care

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Drugs

February 2020

Atezolizumab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy for untreated locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer – first line

Atezolizumab is in clinical development, in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy, for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer, who have received no prior systemic therapy (a drug which travels through the bloodstream and affects the whole body). Urothelial cancer, a subset of bladder cancer, occurs on the lining of the bladder, and other parts of the urinary system. In advanced urothelial cancer, the cancer has grown into deeper layers including connective tissue or muscle. Metastatic urothelial cancer occurs when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or bones.

Drugs

February 2020

AMG 510 for KRAS G12c mutated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer – after prior standard therapy

AMG 510 is in clinical development for the treatment of adults with KRASG12C mutated, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer and a small proportion of patients with NSCLC have tumours which carry the genetic mutation KRASG12C. Metastatic NSCLC describes tumours that have spread from the lungs to other parts of the body. Current NSCLC treatment depends largely on the stage of the cancer and any genetic mutations identified in the tumours and can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted cancer drugs and immunotherapy. Despite a wide range of treatments being available for lung cancers, there are currently no approved treatments for KRASG12C mutated, metastatic NSCLC.

Drugs

February 2020

Pembrolizumab in addition to docetaxel for chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer – second line

Pembrolizumab in addition to docetaxel is in clinical development for patients with prostate cancer which has spread from its original site (i.e. is metastatic), is untreatable via testosterone suppression therapy (i.e. is castration resistant), and where the patient has not received chemotherapy (i.e. chemotherapy-naïve). Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate gland (a small organ in a man’s pelvis) and is the most common cancer in men in the UK. There are three stages: localised, locally advanced and advanced (or metastatic) prostate cancer. The symptoms may vary depending on the stage of cancer but can include pain, tiredness, and problems emptying the bladder and the bowels.

Drugs

February 2020

Naxitamab in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulation factor for relapsed/refractory high-risk neuroblastoma

Naxitamab is a type of protein that has been designed to recognise and attach to a specific structure called GD2 that is present in high amounts on the surface of neuroblastoma cells, but not normal cells. Naxitamab attaches to the neuroblastoma cells and activates the immune system, which then kills the cancer cells. If licensed, naxitamab in combination with GM-CSF may provide a treatment option for patients with relapsed/refractory high-risk neuroblastoma.

Drugs

February 2020

Daratumumab in addition to pomalidomide and dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma

Daratumumab is a type of immune therapy that acts by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells in MM via a surface protein called CD38. Daratumumab monotherapy is already licenced for relapsed/refractory MM. Pomalidomide in combination with dexamethasone is also currently licenced to treat relapsed/refractory MM. Early findings from trials have demonstrated that the addition of daratumumab to pomalidomide and dexamethasone may further stimulate the immune system and directly act against cancer cells in MM, potentially providing another treatment option for patients whose disease has progressed on previous treatments.

Drugs

February 2020

Niraparib for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with DNA-repair anomalies

Niraparib is a medicinal product taken orally. It works by blocking a protein called poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP). It blocks the action of PARP-1 and PARP-2 enzymes that help in repairing damaged DNA in cells when they divide to make new cells. By blocking PARP enzymes, the damaged DNA in cancer cells cannot be repaired, and the cells die. If licensed, niraparib will offer an additional treatment option for men with mCRPC with DNA-repair anomalies.

Drugs

February 2020

Selinexor in addition to bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma

Selinexor is the first in a new family of drugs known as selective inhibition of nuclear export (SINE) compounds that blocks a protein called XPO1. By blocking XPO1, Selinexor blocks the nuclear export of tumour suppressor, growth regulatory, and anti-inflammatory proteins, leading to accumulation of these proteins in the nucleus and enhancing their anti-cancer activity in the cell. Bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone are already currently used in progressive MM. If licensed, the addition of Selinexor to bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone would increase the treatment options for RRMM, a patient group with clear unmet need.

Drugs

February 2020

Ripretinib for treating advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours – fourth-line

Ripretinib is a drug specifically designed to stop the abnormal and overactive enzymes in GIST cells from working, including forms that cannot be blocked by other medicines. Stopping these enzymes is expected to slow down the growth of the tumours and reduce symptoms of the disease. If licensed, ripretinib will offer a fourth-line treatment option for patients with unresectable or metastatic GIST who have exhausted all other approved treatment options.

Drugs

February 2020

Eryaspase in addition to chemotherapy for treating advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer – second-line

Eryaspase in addition to chemotherapy is in clinical development for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) whose disease has progressed following one prior treatment line of anti-cancer therapy. PDAC develops from ducts in the pancreas that carry digestive juices from the pancreas to the intestines. Pancreatic cancer is considered metastatic when the cancer has spread from the pancreas to other parts of the body, most often the liver, abdominal wall, lungs, bones or faraway lymph nodes. Symptoms of advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer are often non-specific such as abdominal or back pain, weight loss, loss of appetite, yellowing of the skin, eyes or both, or nausea. A small proportion of PDAC cases have a genetic basis but the majority are caused by modifiable risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and obesity.

Drugs

February 2020

Tanezumab for cancer pain due to bone metastasis

Tanezumab is in clinical development for the treatment of adults with cancer pain due to bone metastasis. Pain is an uncomfortable, unpleasant physical feeling. It usually happens when subjects have an injury or illness. Pain is common in cancer patients, particularly in the advanced stage of disease when the prevalence is estimated to be more …

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