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This search function provides links to outputs produced by NIHR Innovation Observatory. These are briefing notes or reports on new or repurposed technologies. This search will not return all technologies currently in development as these outputs are produced as required for our stakeholders.

Innovation Observatory > Reports > Cardiovascular Disease and Vascular Surgery

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Drugs

December 2020

Treprostinil for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Treprostinil is in clinical development for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). CTEPH is a progressive disease caused by blood clots forming in the lungs that do not dissolve. These clots restrict blood flow through the lungs and cause scar tissue to form on the inside of the pulmonary arteries (arteries that supply the lungs) resulting in pulmonary hypertension. This means the heart has to work harder to pump the blood and can weaken the heart muscles. Some patients may be offered surgery to remove the scar tissue but in patients who are inoperable or who have persistent/recurrent CTEPH after surgery there is a need for additional treatment options.

Drugs

November 2020

Tezepelumab for severe, uncontrolled asthma

Tezepelumab is a monoclonal antibody (protein) that targets proteins early in the inflammatory cascade. By targeting proteins early in the inflammatory cascade, several downstream inflammatory proteins are suppressed, thereby decreasing inflammation. Tezepelumab given as an add-on-therapy to patients with severe uncontrolled asthma has been shown to be safe, well tolerated, and effective. Tezepelumab is administered subcutaneously. If licensed, tezepelumab as an add on therapy would offer an additional biological therapy to those over 12 years old, with severe asthma.

Drugs

November 2020

Omecamtiv mecarbil for treating chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

Omecamtiv mecarbil is given by oral administration in the form of a tablet. Omecamtiv mecarbil works by interacting with a protein called cardiac myosin that is responsible for converting chemical energy into the mechanical force that results in contraction of the heart. The interaction of omecamtiv mecarbil with cardiac myosin improves the performance of the heart muscle to preserve its function. If licensed, omecamtiv mecarbil may provide an additional treatment option for people with HFrEF who currently have limited therapies available.

Drugs

July 2020

Icosapent ethyl for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events

Icosapent ethyl is in clinical development as a treatment to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients who have their cholesterol levels controlled with statin treatment, but have elevated triglycerides and other cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular events include heart attack, angina and stroke. These diseases are the main cause of death in the UK, accounting for over a quarter of deaths each year. Patients receiving statin treatment are still at a high risk and would benefit from treatment to reduce cardiovascular events.

Drugs

July 2020

Levosimendan for respiratory function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Levosimendan works through binding to a protein called troponin C, which sensitises cardiac and skeletal muscles to calcium and increases their force of contraction. This increased force of contraction is thought to increase diaphragm function and support respiratory dysfunction. Levosimendan is given as an oral capsule and if licensed, it will offer a treatment option for patients with ALS, potentially delaying the need for mechanical ventilation support.

Drugs

June 2020

Empaglifozin for treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

Empagliflozin is given by mouth in the form of a tablet and works by inhibiting the sodium transporter NHE1. This prevents salt from being re-absorbed so there is increased excretion of salt from the body and a reduced volume of fluid in the blood vessels. It’s thought that these changes in sugar, salt and water metabolism in the body may contribute to the reductions in cardiovascular death. If licensed, empagliflozin may provide an additional treatment option for people with HFrEF who currently have limited therapies available.

Drugs

June 2020

Elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (fixed-dose combination) for cystic fibrosis heterozygous for F508del mutation in patients aged 12 years old and older

Elexacaftor and tezacaftor are designed to increase the amount of mature protein at the cell surface by targeting the processing and trafficking defect of the F508del CFTR protein. Ivacaftor is designed to enhance the function of the CFTR protein once it reaches the cell surface. The triple therapy of elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor-FDC may result in an effective therapeutic option for people with CF heterozygous for F508del mutations, who currently have limited options.

Drugs

March 2020

Gefapixant for chronic refractory cough – First line

Gefapixant is an oral drug that blocks receptors in the sensory cells in the airways and lungs, potentially reducing cough frequency in patients with refractory or unexplained chronic cough. Preliminary results from early studies have demonstrated that gefapixant is efficacious and safe. If licenced, gefapixant could provide a treatment option for patients with refractory or unexplained cough who have no licensed therapies available and few effective therapies available.

Drugs

November 2019

Vericiguat for chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

Vericiguat is a medicinal product in clinical development for the treatment of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. HF is a complex clinical syndrome of symptoms and signs that suggest the efficiency of the heart as a pump is impaired. Symptoms include breathlessness and fatigue, and signs of the condition include swollen ankles and crackling sounds in the lungs. More than half of people with HF have a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), also referred to as systolic heart failure, where the heart muscle does not contract effectively, and therefore less oxygen-rich blood is pumped out to the body. There remains a large unmet need for new therapies in the treatment of HFrEF.

Drugs

October 2019

Fevipiprant maintenance therapy for uncontrolled asthma – add on therapy

Fevipiprant is in clinical development for the treatment of patients aged 12 years and older with uncontrolled asthma who remain symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without at least one additional controller. Whilst there is no cure for asthma, most patients are able to control their symptoms by taking daily preventative medication and additional controllers when required. However, a small subset of asthma patients are resistant to the current standard of care for asthma and are unable to control their symptoms. This can have severe implications on their quality of life as uncontrolled asthma can result in decreased physical fitness, decreased sleep quality and decreased productivity at work or school.

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