Empagliflozin is in clinical development for chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome caused by the impaired ability of the heart to cope with the metabolic needs of the body. This results in breathlessness, fatigue, and fluid retention. The European Society of Cardiology(ESC) defines HFpEF as the presence of signs and symptoms of HF, LVEF ≥50%, elevated natriuretic peptides (NP) levels, and structural heart disease and/or diastolic dysfunction. HFpEF is a growing problem affecting more than half of the patients with HF. HFpEF has a significant morbidity and mortality rate and so far, no treatment has been demonstrated to improve the outcomes in HFpEF.
Empagliflozin is administered orally and usually taken once daily in the morning. Empagliflozin inhibits a protein found in the kidney called sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2). It blocks glucose absorption in the kidney and increases the amount of glucose excreted in the urine. Empagliflozin significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular events and heart failure hospitalisation. If licensed, empagliflozin may offer an additional treatment option for patients with HFpEF who currently have no effective treatments available.
Dupilumab is in clinical development as an add-on to controller medications for the maintenance treatment in children aged 6 to <12 years with uncontrolled, moderateto-severe asthma. Asthma is a common lung condition that causes wheezing, coughing and breathlessness. Individuals with asthma can suffer an asthma attack, which in severe cases can be fatal. Patients with …