Avelumab intravenous infusion in combination with oral axitinib is in clinical development for people with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma that have not received any prior
treatment. Renal cell carcinoma originates in the tubules of the kidney that filter the blood waste and is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Renal cell carcinoma is
advanced when it has spread to regional lymph nodes and is metastatic when the tumour has spread to other parts of the body. Current treatment options are associated with severe
adverse events, and in most patients disease will eventually progress.
Avelumab is a human monoclonal antibody that works by inducing cancer cell death and restoring immune response against cancer cells. Axitinib works by blocking the growth of
blood vessels that supply the cancer cells. Their combined mechanism of actions may result in more effective cancer growth inhibition with manageable toxicity profiles. If licensed,
avelumab in combination with axitinib may offer an additional treatment option for people with advanced renal cell carcinoma that have not been treated previously.
Nivolumab is a type of immunotherapy that is currently licensed in the UK for the treatment of several types of advanced cancers such as melanoma, non‐small cell lung cancer, and kidney cancer. It blocks a protein called programmed death-1 (PD-1), which is found on the surface of a type of immune cells called T-cells. Blocking PD-1 stimulates the T-cells to kill the cancer cells. Temozolomide in combination with radiotherapy is currently licensed in the UK for newly diagnosed glioblastoma in adults. The addition of nivolumab to temozolomide and radiotherapy will potentially offer an additional first line treatment option for adult patients who are newly diagnosed MGMT-methylated glioblastoma.