Cabozantinib in combination with atezolizumab is in clinical development for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC). HCC is the most common type of liver cancer and occurs mainly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. aHCC occurs when the cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other organs and is often diagnosed late in life with poor prognosis.
Oral cabozantinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that works by blocking the activity of enzymes known as tyrosine kinases which can be found in certain receptors in cancer cells. Intravenous atezolizumab is a monoclonal antibody, a type of protein designed to recognise and attach to a protein called PD-L1, which is present on many cancer cells. Their combination has shown promising antitumour activity and tolerability in patients with solid tumours including HCC. If licensed, cabozantinib in combination with atezolizumab will provide an additional first-line treatment option for patients with advanced HCC.
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) are both rare conditions that usually affect children and young adults. ALCL is a type of cancer that occurs when T-cells, which contribute to the body’s immune system, become abnormal. IMTs are most commonly non-cancerous (benign), however in some cases the tumour can become cancerous (malignant). Both conditions can be ALK-positive (ALK+), this means that the tumour cells have a mutation in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) resulting in uncontrolled cell replication. These conditions may not be able to be treated through surgical removal of the tumour (unresectable); they may also come back after treatment (relapse) or be resistant to current treatment options (refractory).