Idasanutlin in addition to cytarabine is in development for the treatment of relapse or refractory Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML). AML is a type of cancer that causes the bone marrow (the soft inner part of the bones where new blood cells are made) to produce excess immature white blood cells. The term acute means that it can develop fairly quickly and becomes increasingly more severe. If left untreated it would cause death within a few weeks or months. It is most common in people aged 60 years and over. Symptoms of AML may include weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, recurrent infections, prolonged bleeding and unintended weight loss. Some risk factors, such as exposure to radiation, smoking, exposure to benzene, cancer treatments or blood or genetic disorders, may increase a person’s risk of developing AML.
The most common treatment option for AML is chemotherapy to kill the cancerous cells. Idasanutlin in addition to cytarabine is a new treatment option that has shown promising clinical activity in acute leukaemia. Idasanutlin acts by blocking the activity of a protein known as MDM2 that is frequently found in AML. Blocking the activity of MDM2 can result in promoting cancer cells death. Idasanutlin is taken orally. If licenced, idasanutlin in addition to cytarabine would offer a new treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory AML.
Nivolumab is a type of immunotherapy that is currently licensed in the UK for the treatment of several types of advanced cancers such as melanoma, non‐small cell lung cancer, and kidney cancer. It blocks a protein called programmed death-1 (PD-1), which is found on the surface of a type of immune cells called T-cells. Blocking PD-1 stimulates the T-cells to kill the cancer cells. Temozolomide in combination with radiotherapy is currently licensed in the UK for newly diagnosed glioblastoma in adults. The addition of nivolumab to temozolomide and radiotherapy will potentially offer an additional first line treatment option for adult patients who are newly diagnosed MGMT-methylated glioblastoma.