Ixekizumab as subcutaneous injection is in clinical development for people with radiographic and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis who have not responded favourably to previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy. Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic form of arthritis that causes significant inflammatory low back and/or buttock pain that persists more than three months. The condition affects the bones and joints at the base of the spine where it connects with the pelvis. When the disease is active, these joints become inflamed. Axial spondyloarthritis is divided into two sub-groups depending on whether the clear structural damage can (radiographic) or cannot (non-radiographic) be seen using radiographic imaging.
Ixekizumab is an engineered antibody designed to bind and obstruct the pro-inflammatory interleukin-17A (IL-17A) signalling molecule. It has been suggested that IL-17 may be a crucial mediator of inflammation in the pathway that leads to the development and progression of axial spondyloarthritis. By blocking this pathway, ixekizumab may help prevent joint inflammation, bone erosion, and bone fusion in a patient population where few alternative therapies exist in instances of previous treatment failure.
Tizanidine as an intranasal spray is being developed as a new treatment option for patients with acute low back pain. It works by blocking pain sensations that are sent to the brain, temporarily relaxing muscle tone. Tizanidine is already available in the tablet form as a short-acting muscle relaxer used to relieve the stiffness and restriction of muscles due to injuries or diseases of the spinal cord. If licensed, tizanidine prepared for intranasal administration will offer an alternative to the oral administration for patients with acute low back pain when short term dosing and a fast effect is desired.