Opioids are a type of drug that are used to treat pain but they may also be misused as they are highly addictive and lead to temporary feelings of intense pleasure. Addiction to opioids can develop very quickly, even when taken in small amounts. Treatment for opioid addiction can involve addicts being given carefully prescribed alternative drugs to reduce withdrawal symptoms and cravings. People who take opioids are at risk of overdose, which can lead to death. Symptoms of opioid overdose include drowsiness, muscle spasms and slow, shallow breathing.
Evzio is being developed as an injectable device that contains naloxone, a drug used to reverse the effects of opioid drug overdose. It is designed to be easily administered by non-health professionals in a non-clinical setting. If licensed it has the potential to improve emergency responses to opioid overdoses as it can be used in the home environment, enabling caregivers to respond quickly and confidently due to the voice and visual guidance provided with the device.
Esketamine nasal spray is being developed as a treatment that could be given to people with depression with an imminent risk of suicide. Major depressive disorder (often called depression or major depression in UK) is a serious mood disorder that can impact all aspects of daily life. Symptoms can include low mood, weight changes, lack of energy, disturbed sleep, and suicidal intentions and thoughts. The time between suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide is often very short, and so there is a need for urgent intervention and treatment.