Dystonia is a condition that causes muscle spasms and stiffening, which sometimes result in abnormal positions. Spasmodic torticollis is a form of dystonia affecting the neck specifically. The causes are not well understood, but in some cases it can be inherited, caused by other medicines, or as a result of another brain disease. Symptoms include muscle spasms causing the neck to be twisted or pulled in different directions, neck pain and stiffness. Most cases of spasmodic torticollis begin in midlife and can last for several years, and sometimes for life.
Clostridium botulinum Type A toxin is a drug which works by preventing muscular spasms from occurring. It is injected directly into the neck muscle. Injections are repeated once the condition begins to worsen again, usually every few months. Clinical trials have shown participants experienced improvements in their condition when given clostridium botulinum Type A toxin compared to placebo. If licensed, this pre-prepared form of clostridium botulinum Type A toxin would reduce the burden on staff to mix and prepare the drug before administering it to patients.
Epilepsy is a condition in which the brain is affected by abnormal discharge of electrical activity, causing seizures (fits). There are several different types of epileptic seizures, depending on what part of the brain they start in and which part they affect. Epilepsy can start in any age, but is most common in either childhood …