Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate gland (a small organ in a man’s pelvis) and is the second most common cancer in the UK. There are three stages: localised, locally‐advanced and advanced (or metastatic) prostate cancer. The symptoms may vary depending on the stage of cancer but can include pain, tiredness, problems emptying the bladder and the bowels. About half of men diagnosed with locally‐advanced prostate cancer will see their cancer spread to other body organs (i.e. becoming metastatic). Prostate cancer growth and spread depends on the hormone, testosterone. Cancer that do not respond to hormonal treatment to reduce the level of testosterone are known as castrationresistant prostate cancer.
Darolutamide is a hormonal drug under development for castration resistant prostate cancer that has not spread (non‐metastatic). It acts by blocking testosterone receptors from getting activated on the cancer cells and consequently reducing the size of the cancer. Darolutamide is taken orally twice a day. If licenced, darolutamide will provide an additional treatment option for men with non‐metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer that are at high risk of their cancer spreading to other parts of the body.
Daratumumab injected under the skin (subcutaneous formulation) is in development for the treatment multiple myeloma (MM) as an alternative to currently approved daratumumab intravenous formulation. MM is a rare, incurable cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow where large amounts of abnormal plasma cells are produced and interfere with the production of platelets, red and white blood cells. People with MM will experience periods of time without symptoms followed by periods when the illness comes back (‘relapsed’ MM). Eventually the periods without symptoms will shorten and the illness will become immune to the drugs given to treat it (‘refractory’ MM).